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Table 1 Summary of included articles

From: Prolongation of length of stay and Clostridium difficile infection: a review of the methods used to examine length of stay due to healthcare associated infections

Author Study type Country Statistical analysis Results
Ananthakrishnan, McGinley, & Binion 2008 Retrospective case control US Multivariate regression Three times the length of stay (CDI+IBD) vs. controls (IBD) IBD=irritable bowel disease
Bajaj et al. 2010 Retrospective case control US Multivariate regression 12.7-day case vs. 6.7-day control
Dubberke, Butler et al. 2008 Retrospective cohort US Multivariate regression, matched-pairs analysis 9.6-day cases vs. 5.8-day controls
Dubberke & Wertheimer 2009 Review Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable
Ghantoji et al. 2010 Review Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable
Kenneally et al. 2007 Retrospective cohort US Multiple logistic regression 27.3 (CDI) vs. 22.8 (non CDI)
Lawrence et al. 2007 Retrospective cohort US Multiple logistic regression CDI stay twice as much non-CDI in ICU
Lumpkins et al. 2008 Prospective cohort US Multiple logistic regression 34.9day LOS with CDI vs. 19 LOS without CDI
Miller et al. 2002 Retrospective cohort Canada Not discussed 9% of 269 patients with CDI deemed to have extension of LOS due to CDI
Nguyen, Kaplan, Harris, & Brant 2008 Retrospective cohort US Multiple linear regression 65% increase in LOS in patients with CDI & Crohns disease 46% increase in LOS in patients with CDI & ulcerative colitis
OBrien, Lahue, Caro, & Davidson 2007 Retrospective cohort US Descriptive 6.4-day LOS in patients with primary CDI diagnosis
Pepin, Valiquette, & Cossette 2005 Retrospective case control Canada Not discussed 10.7-day additional LOS in patient with CDI
Song et al. 2008 Retrospective match cohort US Logistic regression Wilcoxon Linear regression 1-day LOS increase (with CDI)
4-day LOS increase (CDI) when compared to matched diagnosis related group DRG     
Vonberg et al. 2008 Prospective match cohort Germany Wilcoxon Kolmogorov-Smirnov test 27-day LOS cases vs. 20-day LOS controls
Zerey et al. 2007 Retrospective cohort US Multiple logistic regression 16-day-longer LOS (with CDI)
Zilberberg et al. 2009 Retrospective cohort US Propensity score Multivariate analysis 6.1-day longer LOS (with CDI)