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Table 1 Differences in HAI definitions (CDC/NHSN vs. HELICS/IPSE)

From: Concordance between European and US case definitions of healthcare-associated infections

Type of HAI or key term CDC/NHSN definitions HELICS/IPSE definitions
Bloodstream infection (BSI) / Laboratory-confirmed bloodstream Infection (LCBI) ·LCBI (Positive blood culture with recognized pathogen or 2 blood cultures with skin contaminant incl. clinical symptoms. Organism cultured from blood is not related to an infection at another site) ·BSI-A
(Positive blood culture with recognized pathogen or 2 blood culture with skin contaminant incl. clinical symptoms. Origin: “Catheter” (C), “Secondary to another site” (S) or “Unknown” (U))
·CSEP (Clinical sepsis in patients ≤ 1 year)
Catheter-related infection (CRI) -* ·CRI 1 (Local central venous catheter (CVC)-related infection)
·CRI 2 (General CVC-related infection)
· CRI 3 (CVC-related BSI)
· CCO (Catheter colonisation)
Pneumonia (PNU/PN) · PNU1 (Clinically defined pneumonia) · PN 1 (Protected sample + quantitative culture)
· PNU2 (Pneumonia with specific laboratory findings) · PN 2 (Non-protected sample + quantitative culture)
· PNU3 (Pneumonia in immunocompromised patients) · PN 3 (Alternative microbiological criteria)
· PN 4 (Sputum bacteriology or non-quantitative endotracheal aspirate (ETA))
· PN 5 (No microbiological criterion (only clinical criteria))
Urinary tract infection (UTI) · SUTI (Symptomatic UTI) †/‡ · UTI-A (Symptomatic, microbiologically confirmed)
· ASB (Asymptomatic bacteriuria) † /
·ABUTI (Asymptomatic bacteremic UTI) ‡ · UTI-B (Symptomatic , not microbiologically confirmed)
· OUTI (Other infections of the urinary tract) †/‡ · UTI-C (Asymptomatic bacteriuria)
ICU-acquired HAI · No evidence that the infection was present or incubating at the time of admission to the ICU · Infection occurred later than 48 hours after admission in the ICU
Ventilator-associated · A device to assist or control respiration continuously through a tracheostomy or by endotracheal intubation was present within the 48-hour period before the onset of infection, inclusive of the weaning period · An invasive respiratory device was present (even intermittently) in the 48 hours preceding the onset of infection
  1. *, not applicable.
  2. †, until December 2008.
  3. ‡, since January 2009.