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Table 1 Patient characteristics during baseline and intervention periods of an antimicrobial stewardship program

From: Implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program on the medical-surgical service of a 100-bed community hospital

Variable Baseline Intervention P a
Discharges, no. 1409 3054  
Age, mean (SD), years 57.4 (18.6) 57.4 (18.7) .933
Male sex 628 (44.6) 1304 (42.7) .241
Race    
 Asian 93 (6.6) 197 (6.5) .850
 Black 185 (13.1) 463 (15.2) .074
 Hispanic 180 (12.8) 377 (12.3) .686
 White 940 (66.7) 1971 (64.5) .156
Health insurance    
 Commercial, HMO, PPO 627 (44.5) 1274 (41.7) .084
 Medicare, Managed Care Medicare 639 (45.4) 1382 (45.3) .951
 Medicaid, Managed Care Medicaid 37 (2.6) 95 (3.1) .374
ALOS, mean (SD), days 3.9 (0.3) 3.6 (0.3) .118
Primary ICD-9 diagnosis code(s)    
 Circulatory 314 (22.3) 593 (19.4) .027
 Diabetes mellitus 19 (1.3) 48 (1.6) .569
 Digestive 202 (14.3) 468 (15.3) .391
 Genitourinary 182 (12.9) 454 (14.9) .083
 Infectious and parasitic 57 (4.0) 110 (3.6) .468
 Musculoskeletal and connective tissue 61 (4.3) 160 (5.2) .193
 Neoplasms 144 (10.2) 293 (9.6) .513
 Respiratory 124 (8.8) 276 (9.0) .797
 Skin and subcutaneous tissue 43 (3.1) 81 (2.7) .450
  1. NOTE:
  2. Data are no. (%) of discharged medical-surgical service patients, unless otherwise indicated.
  3. a - The Mann–Whitney U test was used to compare continuous data, and the χ2 test was used to compare categorical data.
  4. Abbreviations: ALOS, average length of stay; HMO, health maintenance organization; ICD-9, International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision; PPO, preferred provider organization; SD, standard deviation.