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Table 4 Antimicrobial use and cost during baseline and intervention periods of an antimicrobial stewardship program

From: Implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program on the medical-surgical service of a 100-bed community hospital

Variable DDD per 100 Admissions DDD per 1000 Patient-days
  Baseline Intervention P a Baseline Intervention P a
By category       
Antibacterials 401.8 318.9 .009 1028 878.7 .011
Antifungals 23.1 13.2 .035 59.1 36.5 .047
Antivirals 7.5 5.2 .375 21.3 14.2 .257
All agents 432.4 337.3 .006 1109 929.4 .013
By selected class       
Antipseudomonal carbapenemsb 13.8 4.4 .047 35.0 12.4 .047
Cephalosporins 42.2 49.2 .188 108.7 135.7 .030
Echinocandins 4.7 3.2 .975 11.3 8.7 .924
Fluoroquinolones 123.1 100.8 .011 314.2 279.2 .071
By selected agent       
Ampicillin-sulbactam 17.6 16.1 .830 46.8 43.9 .878
Cefazolin 20.8 26.9 .013 53.7 74.9 .004
Ceftriaxone 13.2 14.5 .603 34.3 39.8 .312
Cefepime 0.5 1.9 .217 1.3 5.0 .171
Clindamycin 22.5 12.7 .004 57.4 34.8 .009
Daptomycin 2.0 0.7 .913 5.1 2.1 .855
Ertapenem 14.2 12.4 .878 35.6 34.0 .830
Fluconazole 17.6 9.8 .105 46.1 27.2 .284
Levofloxacin 122.0 97.1 .006 311.2 269.2 .030
Linezolid 4.5 0.5 .017 11.3 1.6 .020
Metronidazole 21.7 16.9 .105 55.5 46.1 .257
Nafcillin 3.0 0.3 .370 7.3 0.9 .370
Piperacillin-tazobactam 32.0 30.8 .783 80.7 84.7 .736
Tigecycline 0.2 0.2 .702 0.5 0.4 .702
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 25.6 3.9 .016 65.0 10.8 .017
Vancomycin 44.8 42.7 .783 115.2 116.2 .976
  US$ per Admission US$ per Patient-day
  Baseline Intervention P a Baseline Intervention P a
By category       
Antibacterials 79.8 54.7 .025 20.2 15.1 .040
All agents 87.0 59.4 .013 22.0 16.4 .022
  1. NOTE:
  2. Data are means of monthly medical-surgical service antimicrobial use and cost.
  3. a - The Mann–Whitney U test.
  4. b - Imipenem and meropenem (doripenem was not used). A formulary change (and auto-substitution policy) from meropenem to imipenem was implemented during the intervention period.
  5. Abbreviations: DDD, defined daily doses (World Health Organization Center for Drug Statistics Methodology).