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Table 3 Relevant literature to costs and length of stays (LOS) of patients with lower respiratory tract infection

From: Attributable costs of ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) acquired on intensive care units: a retrospectively matched cohort study

Author, Year Study country Study design Adjusted for time – dependency bias Type of infection DRG-based Exposed : unexposed Attributable costs Attributable hospital LOS
Kollef, 2012 [6] USA Matched cohort, retrospectively No VAP Yes 2,144 : 2,144 39,828 USD* 13 days*
Restrepo, 2010 [7] USA Matched cohort, retrospectively No VAP Yes 30 : 90 35,480 USD* 13 days*
Cocanour, 2005 [5] USA Matched case control, prospectively No VAP Yes 70 : 70 57,158 USD*† 14 days*†
Warren, 2003 [8] USA Cohort study, prospectively No VAP Yes 127 : 629 11,897 USD 21 days*
This study, 2012 Germany Matched cohort, prospectively Yes LRTI Yes 49 : 49 23,651 USD 9 days
  1. * absolute difference of mean or median of exposed and unexposed patients.
  2. † only ICU. LRTI, lower respiratory tract infection. VAP, ventilator-associated pneumonia.