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Table 1 Factors associated with ESBL-E carriage amongst 1072 internal medicine patients, University of Geneva Hospitals, March-June 20101; univariate and multivariate regression analysis

From: Carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteriacae among internal medicine patients in Switzerland

  Proportions (n) Univariate regression Multivariate regression
Variable ESBL carriage (n = 51) No ESBL carriage (n = 1021) OR [95% CI] P- value OR [95% CI] P- value
Male gender 54.9 (28) 56.9 (581) 0.92 [0.52-1.62] 0.778   
Transferred from ICU 0 0.6 (6) 0.27 [0.36-1.97] 0.195   
Transferred from other ward (other than the ICU) 2.0 (1) 2.5 (25) 0.80 [0.11-6.00] 0.825   
Patient admitted from home 96.1 (49) 90.7 (925) 2.52 [0.61-10.62] 0.201   
Age
 < =59 y 37.3 (19) 33.6 (343) 1.94 [0.55-6.81] 0.300   
 60 -79 y 41.2 (21) 39.5 (403) 1.62 [0.47-5.52] 0.443   
 > = 80 y 21.5 (11) 22.1 (226) 1.40 [0.38-5.2] 0.614   
Acute renal failure2 20.8 (5) 23.0 (94) 0.87 [0.32-2.40] 0.793   
Chronic renal failure2 16.7 (4) 13.6 (55) 1.28 [0.42-3.87] 0.667   
End stage renal failure2 4.2 (9) 2.0 (8) 2.16 [0.26-18.04] 0.476   
Diabetes without complications 2 33.3 (8) 15.3 (62) 2.77 [1.14-6.39] 0.033 2.87 [1.09-7.08] 0.032
Diabetes mellitus (with complications)2 12.5 (3) 10.3 (42) 1.24 [0.35- 4.33] 0.706   
Peripheral vascular disease2 8.3 (16) 3.9 (16) 2.21 [0.48-10.25] 0.309   
Chronic obstructive airway disease2 20.8 (5) 13.8 (56) 1.64 [0.59-4.58] 0.341   
Dementia2 0 1.2 (5) Omitted    
Stroke2 0 1.0 (4) Omitted    
Cerebral hemorrhage2 0 0.5 (2) Omitted    
Congestive cardiac failure2 29.2 (7) 23.7 (96) 1.33 [0.54-3.30] 0.539   
Ischemic heart disease2 12.5 (3) 11.1 (45) 1.15 [0.33-4.00] 0.831   
Hematological malignancy2 0 5.4 (22) Omitted    
Carotid artery stenosis2 0 1.0 (4) Omitted    
Parkinson’s disease2 0 0.3 (1) Omitted    
Connective tissue disease 2 8.3 (5) 1.0 (4) 9.14 [1.58-52.62] 0.013 7.22 [1.17-44.59] 0.033
Liver failure 2 8.3 (6) 1.5 (6) 6.06 [1.15-31.77] 0.033 8.39 [1.55-45.45] 0.014
Respiratory failure2 0 0.7 (3) Omitted    
Solid organ cancer2 4.2 (1) 17.0 (69) 0.21 [0.28-1.58] 0.130   
Metastatic cancer2 8.3 (2) 8.4 (34) 0.99 [0.22-4.41] 0.994   
Peptic ulcer disease2 4.2 (1) 2.7 (11) 1.56 [0.19-12.64] 0.676   
Infection2 0 0.9 (4) Omitted    
  1. 1. Positive ESBL swab at admission in cases where the swab was collected within 48 h of admission and patients with prior carriage have been excluded.
  2. ICU intensive care unit, y years;
  3. 2. Denominator adjusted for number of patients in whom data were available.