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Table 2 Factors associated with ESBL-E acquisition amongst 473 internal medicine patients, University of Geneva Hospitals, March-June 20101; univariate regression analysis

From: Carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteriacae among internal medicine patients in Switzerland

  Proportions (n) or Median [range] Univariate regression
Variable ESBL acquisition (n = 21) No ESBL acquisition (n = 452) OR [95% CI] P- value
Male gender 57.1 (12) 51.3 (232) 1.2 [0.51-3.05] 0.603
Transferred from ICU 28.6 (6) 8.2 (37) 4.48 [1.64-12.25 0.003
Transferred from other ward (other than the ICU) 14.3 (3) 2.4 (11) 6.69 [1.71-26.06] 0.006
Patient admitted from home 57.1 (12) 89.4 (404) 0.16 [0.06-0.39] <0.001
Age (y) 66.9 [30.6-86.8] 64.1 [18.8-99.2]   
Age
 < = 59 y    1.45 [0.16-12.90] 0.737
 60 -79 y    1.35 [0.16-11.19] 0.778
 > = 80 y    1.89 [0.23-15.99] 0.556
Length of stay (days) 12.1 [3–58] 7.7 [1–54]   
Length of stay     
 <7 d    2.69 [0.73-9.95] 0.138
 7-14 d    3.09 [0.67-14.23] 0.146
 14-21 d    1.5 [0.15-15.13] 0.718
 >21 d    25.17 [4.18-151.7] <0.001
Acute renal failure2 45.4 (5) 22.7 (45) 2.83 [0.83-9.71] 0.098
Chronic renal failure2 27.2 (3) 14.6 (29) 2.12 [0.55-8.72] 0.268
End stage renal failure2 0.0 (0) 3.0 (6) Omitted  
Diabetes without complications2 9.1 (1) 18.4 (38) 0.45 [0.05-3.62] 0.453
Diabetes mellitus (with complications)2 9.1 (1) 11.6 (23) 0.76 [0.09-6.22] 0.799
Peripheral vascular disease2 0.0 (0) 5.1 (11) Omitted  
Chronic obstructive airway disease2 18.2 (2) 21.2 (42) 0.83 [0.17-3.96] 0.811
Dementia2 0.0 (0) 1.0 (2) Omitted  
Stroke2 0.0 (0) 1.0 (2) Omitted  
Cerebral hemorrhage2 0.0 (0) 1.0 (2) Omitted  
Congestive cardiac failure2 9.1 (1) 25.8 (51) 0.29 [0.04-2.30] 0.241
Ischemic heart disease2 0.0 (0) 9.6 (19) Omitted  
Hematological malignancy2 0.0 (0) 5.1 (11) Omitted  
Carotid artery stenosis2 0.0 (0) 2.5 (5) Omitted  
Parkinson’s disease2 9.1 (1) 0.5 (1) 19.70 [1.15-338.43] 0.040
Connective tissue disease2 0.0 (0) 1.0 (2) Omitted  
Liver failure2 9.1 (1) 1.0 (2) 9.80 [0.82-117.39] 0.072
Respiratory failure2 0.0 (0) 0.5 (1) Omitted  
Solid organ cancer2 18.1 (2) 14.1 (28) 1.35 [0.27-6.57] 0.711
Metastatic cancer2 0.0 (0) 6.6 (13) Omitted  
Peptic ulcer disease2 9.1 (1) 3.0 (6) 3.20 [0.35-29.18] 0.302
Infection2 0.0 (0) 0.5 (1) Omitted  
Any antibiotic use 42.9 (9) 26.5 (120) 2.08 [0.85-5.04] 0.108
Amoxicillin, flucloxacillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin 14.3 (3) 8.6 (39) 1.76 [0.49-6.25] 0.379
Ceftriaxon 4.8 (1) 1.3 (6) 3.72 [0.43-32.35] 0.234
Cefazolin, cefuroxime 14.3 (3) 1.8 (8) 9.25 [2.22-37.82] 0.002
Macrolide, tetracycline 0.0 (0) 1.3 (6) Omitted  
Fluoroquinolone 0.0 (0) 6.0 (27) Omitted  
Ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem 0.0 (0) 0.2 (1) Omitted  
Cotrimoxazole 0.0 (0) 1.3 (6) Omitted  
Vancomycin 4.8 (1) 0.4 (2) 11.34 [0.97-129.31] 0.052
Metronidazole 4.8 (1) 1.8 (8) 2.84 [0.33-23.27] 0.347
Gentamicin 0.0 (0) 0.3 (1) Omitted  
  1. 1. Positive ESBL swab at discharge where admission ESBL-E screening had been negative. Swabs must be collected within 36 h of discharge and patients with prior ESBL-E carriage were excluded.
  2. ICU intensive care unit; y years, d days;
  3. 2. Denominator adjusted for number of patients in whom data were available.