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Table 3 Multivariate logistic regression models clustered on hospitals presenting independent factors associated with urinary tract infection stratified on gender, Swiss-NOSO Nationwide Prevalence Study, 2004

From: High proportion of healthcare-associated urinary tract infection in the absence of prior exposure to urinary catheter: a cross-sectional study

Variables Male (n = 3703) Female (n = 4171)
Odds ratio 95% CI P value Odds ratio 95% CI P value
Age groups (%)    0.01*    0.10*
 <70 years 1.00 -   1.00 - -
 > = 71 years 2.57 1.24-5.31   1.51 0.93-2.45  
Recent surgical intervention    0.78    0.43
 No 1.00 -   1.00 -  
 Yes 1.11 0.55-2.21   0.82 0.49-1.35  
ASA score (%)    0.30    0.47
 <4 pts 1.00 -   1.00 - -
 4-5 pts 0.52 0.15-1.81   0.73 0.31-1.73  
Charlson group    0.50    0.89
 0-3 pts 1.00 -   1.00 -  
 > = 4 pts 1.44 0.50-4.11   0.94 0.39-2.28  
Length of stay    0.57    <0.001*
 <20 days 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
 21-40 days 0.86 0.26-2.92 0.81 2.75 1.52-4.96 0.001
 > = 41 days 1.75 0.59-5.17 0.31 2.89 1.41-5.92 0.004
Recent stay in intensive care    0.59    0.04*
 No 1.00 -   1.00 -  
 Yes 0.79 0.35-1.81   1.83 1.03-3.24  
McCabe classification (%)    0.84    0.14*
 Non fatal 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
 Fatal within 5 years 0.81 0.36-1.82 0.61 1.70 0.99-2.91 0.05
 Fatal within 6 months 1.11 0.31-4.04 0.87 0.98 0.32-3.00 0.98
Prior exposure to urinary catheter    <0.001*    <0.001*
 No 1.00 -   1.00 -  
 Yes 6.77 3.20-14.35   3.04 1.83-5.04  
Hemiplegia    0.08*    0.34
 No 1.00 -   1.00 -  
 Yes 2.04 0.93-4.46   1.36 0.73-2.54  
Immune suppression°    0.39    0.57
 No 1.00 -   1.00 -  
 Yes 1.55 0.57-4.18   1.24 0.58-2.65  
  1. *Independent variables significantly (or slightly significantly) associated with urinary tract infection.
  2. ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists; autoimmune disease, transplantation, hepatopathy, nephropathy, neoplasia.