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Table 4 Prevalence of urinary catheter use and/or symptomatic healthcare-associated urinary tract infection: reports in the peer-reviewed literature (January 1980-December 2012)

From: High proportion of healthcare-associated urinary tract infection in the absence of prior exposure to urinary catheter: a cross-sectional study

Author/s Population Methodology Catheter use Infection Remarks
Jepsen et al.[19] 1982 40 hospitals in eight countries, n = 3899 Point prevalence 10.1% men, 11.8% women 6.5% Conducted in 1980
Moro et al.[20] 1985 130 hospitals, n = 34,577 Point prevalence 9.4% 2.1% National prevalence survey in Italy, 1983
Mertens et al.[21] 1987 106 hospitals, n = 8723 Point prevalence 15.7% 4.4% National prevalence survey in Belgium 1984 70% surgery. Definition nosocomial: > 3rd day
Srámova et al.[22] 1988 23 hospitals, n = 12,260 Point prevalence   1.5% Prevalence survey in Czechoslovakia, 1984
Emmerson et al.[23] 1996 157 centres, n = 37,111 Survey - 2.4% Prevalence survey in UK and Ireland, 1994
Gastmeier et al.[24] 1997 72 hospitals, n = 14,966 Point prevalence   1.1% National prevalence survey in Germany, 1994
Scheel et al.[25] 1999 All acute care hospitals, n = 12,755 Point prevalence - 2.2% National prevalence survey in Norway, 1997
Vaqué et al.[26] 1999 n = 51,674 in 1997 Point prevalence - 2.1% National prevalence surveys in Spain, 1990-1997
French Prevalence Group[27] 2000 830 hospitals, n = 236,334 Point prevalence 9.6% 1.6% National prevalence survey in France, 1996, including psychiatric and long-term care wards
Eriksen et al.[2] 2002 Acute care hospitals, n = 11,500-12,500 Point prevalence - 1.7-2.0% National prevalence surveys in Norway,
2002 and 2003
Gikas et al.[28] 2002 n = 3925 Point prevalence 8.6% 2.1% Survey in 14 Greek hospitals, 1999
Lizioli et al.[29] 2003 Public hospitals, n = 18,667 Point prevalence - 1.6% Prevalence survey in Lombardy, 2000
Klavs et al.[30] 2003 Acute care, n = 6695 Point prevalence - 1.2% National prevalence survey in Slovenia, 2001
Nicastri et al.[31] 2003 15 hospitals in Italy, n = 2165 Point prevalence 22.4% 1.7% All participating hospitals have > 400 beds
Wald et al.[5] 2005 Surgery, n = 111,330 523 Medicare hospitals Retrospective cohort study 32% at discharge day - Patients at discharge after hip replacement
Tammelin[32] 2005 31 hospitals, n = 6369   16.5% 1.65% Acute hospitals and long-term care facilities in Sweden, 2002
Gravel et al.[33] 2007 n = 5750 Point prevalence 22% 3.4% National prevalence survey in Canada, 2002
Hopmans et al.[34] 2007 2 tertiary Dutch hospitals, n = 2661 Point prevalence twice a year - 2.3% (1.2%-3.4%) 2001-2004. Obstetric wards excluded
Kevens et al.[35] 2007 445 US hospitals, n = 33,726,611 Throughout the year 2002 - 1.3% Estimations for the USA
Pelizzer et al.[36] 2008 21 Italian hospitals, n = 6352 Period prevalence 25.2% 2.2% Prevalence study in Veneto region, Italy 2003
van den Broek et al.[37] 2011 10 hospitals, n = 16,495 Period prevalence 20.2% 2.6% Netherlands, acute care hospitals
Cairns et al.[38] 2011 45 acute care hospitals, n = 11,090 Point prevalence 20.3% 2.0% Scotland 2006, exclusion of obstetric patients
Cotter et al.[39] 2012 69 long-term care facilities, n = 4,170 Point prevalence 5.6% 1.5% Long-term care facilities in Ireland, June 2010
Askarian et al.[40] 2012 8 university hospitals, n = 3450 Point prevalence 23.1% 1.4% University hospitals in Shiraz, Iran
Health Protection Agency[41] 2012 103 healthcare facilities, n = 52,443 Point prevalence 18.8% 1.1% English national point prevalence survey preliminary data
Present article Acute care hospitals, n = 8169 Period prevalence Cluster-adapted 24% 1.5% National prevalence survey in Switzerland, 2004
  1. * Only reports including at least 2000 patients admitted to acute care facilities are included.