Projected increased costs associated with increases in resistance to specific antibiotics. Incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia is assumed to be constant. The attributable costs shown are derived from treatment failure of cases presenting as outpatients, which resulted in additional outpatient visits or courses of antibiotics, or led to hospitalizations. PCN resistance is given according to post-2008 MIC breakpoints. Cost is depicted at a given absolute percent resistance; e.g., if 20% of pneumococcal isolates were to be resistant to fluoroquinolones, the total cost attributable to that level of resistance is $127 million dollars. Initial data points for each antibiotic indicate baseline cost and resistance.