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Table 3 Incidence densities and proportions of ventilator-associated pneumonia in pediatric settings

From: Ventilator-associated pneumonia in neonates, infants and children

Region Reference (Author, Country, Year of publication, Ref No) Setting Patients VAP* VD* Incidence density (N/1000 ventilation-days) %**
Middle Afjeh, Iran, 2012 [27] NICU* 281 14 1207 11.6 17.3
East/Persia Almuneef, Saudi Arabia, 2004 [28] PICU* 2361 37 4173 8.9 10.3
  Shaath, Saudi Arabia, 2013 [29] Cardiac surgery 1137 9 306 29.4 6.6
South Asia Awasthi, India, 2013 [19] PICU* 2105 38 - - 36.2
East Asia Yuan, China, 2007 [30] NICU* 2259 52 1130 46.0 20.1
  Navoa-Ng, Philippines, 2011 [31] PICU* 3252 6 391 0.44 2.4
  Navoa-Ng, Philippines, 2011 [31] NICU* 31813 1 2279 12.8 0.06
  Xu, China, 2007 [32] NICU* 33942 143 2259 63.3 3.6
  Cai, China, 2010 [33] NICU* 31159 38 779 48.8 3.3
Europe Geffers, Germany, 2008 [21] NICU* (<1500 g) 38677 176 64090 2.7 2.0
  Leistner, Germany, 2013 [22] NICU* (<1500 g) - 345 158024 2.2 -
  Tekin, Turkey, 2013 [34] NICU* 36932 76 11939 6.4 1.1
  Yalaz, Turkey, 2012 [35] NICU* 2162 40 2907 13.8 24.7
  Patria, Italy, 2013 [25] PICU* 3451 30 - - 6.7
  Hentschel, Switzerland, 2005 [36] NICU* 121 1 80 12.5 4.8
  Roeleveld, Netherlands, 2011 [37] Cardiac surgery 1125 11 644 17.1 8.8
  Gastmeier, Germany, 2002 [38] Burn unit 341 8 145 55.2 19.5
  Oezdemir, Turkey, 2011 [39] PICU* 3203 - - 15.7 -
  Jordan Garcia, Spain, 2014 [40] PICU* 3300 4 422 9.5 1.3
  Turkish Neonatal Society; 2010 [41] NICU* 39359 - - - 1.7
North Edwards, USA, 2008 [23] PICU* - 176 85809 2.1 -
America Edwards, USA, 2008 [23] NICU* - 410 203466 2.0 -
  Edwards, USA, 2007 [42] PICU* - 81 32936 2.5 -
  Edwards, USA, 2007 [42] NICU* - 121 63075 1.9 -
  Hocevar, USA, 2012 [43] NICU* - 701 336527 2.1 -
  Stover, USA, 2001 [44] PICU* - - - 3.7 -
  Stover, USA, 2001 [44] NICU* - - - 2.5 -
  Apisarnthanarak, USA, 2003 [45] NICU* (ELBW) 2211 24 4173 5.8 11.4
  Elward, USA, 2002 [46] PICU* 1595 34 2931 11.6 5.1
  Weber, USA, 1997 [47] Burn unit 140 7 614 11.4 17.5
  Martinez-Aguilar, Mexico, 2001 [48] PICU* - 44 1571 28 -
South Abramczyk, Brazil, 2003 [11] PICU* 3515 40 2120 18.7 7.8
America Pessoa-Silva, Brazil, 2004 [49] NICU* 34878 83 10494 7.9 1.7
  Araujo da Silva Brazil, 2012 [50] Homecare 19 23 3394 6.8 -
  Casado, Brazil, 2011 [51] PICU* 1366 39 1439 27.1 10.7
  Duenas, Argentina, 2011 [52] PICU* 31145 93 7709 12.1 8.1
  Duenas, Argentina, 2011 [52] NICU* 31270 139 8634 16.1 10.9
  Becerra, Peru, 2010 [53] PICU* 3414 27 3420 7.9 6.5
  Fernandez Jonusas, Argentina, 2011 [54] NICU* 31530 6 3157 1.9 0.4
Africa Rasslan , Egypt, 2012 [20] PICU* 3143 18 567 31.8 12.6
  Rogers, South Africa, 2014 [55] Burn unit 292 41 - 30.0 40.2
  El-Kholy, Egypt, 2012 [56] PICU* 1211 54 1478 36.5 25.6
  El-Kholy, Egypt, 2012 [56] NICU* 1127 26 1003 25.9 20.5
  Ben Jaballah, Tunisia, 2006 [57] PICU/NICU* 3340 7 1591 4.4 2.1
  Badr, Egypt, 2011 [58] NICU* 256 32 315 101.6 57.1
  El-Nawawy, Egypt, 2006 [59] PICU* - - - 10.9 -
Australia Gautam, Australia, 2012 [26] PICU* 2269 18 2564 7.0 6.7
  1. *NICU: neonatal intensive care unit; PICU: pediatric intensive care unit; VAP: ventilator-associated pneumonia; VD: ventilation days.
  2. **Proportion of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia compared to patients included in the study (admissions or patients on ventilation).
  3. 1Patients on mechanical ventilation for 24 h or more.
  4. 2Patients on mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h.
  5. 3All admitted patients.