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Table 2 Positive vs negative association of risk factors with MDR-TB in Ethiopia

From: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Ethiopia: efforts to expand diagnostic services, treatment and care

Risk factor Positive association with drug resistance Negative association with drug resistance
Previous exposure to anti-TB treatment Agonafir et al.[19], Abate et al.[22], Tessema et al.[23], Esmael et al.[27], Hirpa et al.[31], Berhan et al.[33] Biadglegne et al.[26]
1+ bacterial load Esmael et al.[27]  
Drug side effects to first-line anti-TB drugs Hirpa et al.[31]  
Treatment not directly observed by a health worker Hirpa et al.[31]  
Interruption of treatment at least a day Hirpa et al.[31]  
HIV/AIDS Yimer et al.[21], Abebe et al.[24] Abate et al.[22], Tessema et al.[23], Hirpa et al.[31], Berhan et al.[33]
Age   Yimer et al.[21], Abate et al.[22], Tessema et al.[23], Esmael et al.[27], Hirpa et al.[31], Berhan et al.[33]
Being male Biadglegne et al.[26] Yimer et al.[21], Abate et al.[22], Tessema et al.[23], Esmael et al.[27], Hirpa et al.[31],
Newly treated cases Biadglegne et al.[26] Agonafir et al.[19], Abate et al.[22], Tessema et al.[23], Esmael et al.[27], Hirpa et al.[31], Berhan et al.[33]
Treatment in poorly performing control program FMOH[32]  
Exposure to a known MDR-TB case FMOH[32]  
History of using poor quality of drugs FMOH[32]  
Mal-absorption FMOH[32]  
Failure of first-line short-course chemotherapy FMOH[32]