Skip to main content

Table 2 Description of studies included in systematic review

From: Clinical and economic consequences of hospital-acquired resistant and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study (Year) Study Design Setting/ location Source of Infection Definition of Resistance / Controls Study Population Patients (n) Ref.
Akhabue et al. (2011) Retrospective Observational Tertiary; USA Genitourinary, respiratory wound, blood, tissue Culture positive results for cefepime susceptible or resistant P. aeruginosa Cefepime resistant P. aeruginosa 213 [61]
Susceptible P. aeruginosa 2316
Brooklyn Antibiotic Resistance Task Force (2002) Retrospective Observational Tertiary; USA Genitourinary, respiratory, wound Culture positive results for carbapenem susceptible or resistant P. aeruginosa Susceptible P. aeruginosa 10 [60]
Resistant P. aeruginosa 10
Cao et al. (2004) Retrospective Observational Tertiary; China Genitourinary, respiratory wound, blood, tissue Culture positive results for susceptible or MDR P. aeruginosa (when the absence of susceptibility to three or more antibiotics: ceftazidime, cefepime, piperacillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and imipenem or meropenem) MDR P. aeruginosa 44 [57]
Susceptible P. aeruginosa 68
Eagye et al. (2009) Retrospective Observational Tertiary; USA Genitourinary, respiratory, wound Culture positive results for meropenem susceptible or resistant P. aeruginosa; control patients were located in the same unit and on the same day as cases and without 105 DRG codes related to infection Meropenem resistant P. aeruginosa 58 [53]
Susceptible P. aeruginosa 125
Control 57
Evans et al. (2007) Retrospective Observational Tertiary; USA Genitourinary, respiratory, wound Culture positive results for susceptible or resistant P. aeruginosa; resistance defined as resistance to all the drugs in one or more of the following antibiotic classes: aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones. Susceptible P. aeruginosa 73 [71]
Resistant P. aeruginosa 47
Furtado et al. (2009) Retrospective Observational ICU; Brazil Genitourinary, respiratory, wound Culture positive results for imipenem susceptible or resistant P. aeruginosa; control patients were hospitalized in the same ICU unit as the case participants and matched by time (within a 30-day interval), age (within a 10-year interval), and time at risk (control patients were imipenem susceptible) Imipenem resistant P. aeruginosa 63 [62]
Control 182
Furtado et al. (2011) Prospective Observational Tertiary; Brazil Respiratory Culture positive results for imipenem susceptible or resistant P. aeruginosa; Isolates were screened for the presence of metallo-β-lactamases by using multiplex PCR. São Paulo Metallo-β-lactamase (SPM-1) producing imipenem resistant P. aeruginosa 5 [68]
Non-SPM-1-producing susceptible P. aeruginosa 24
Gasink et al. (2006) Retrospective Observational Tertiary; USA Respiratory, wound Culture positive results for fluoroquinolone susceptible or resistant P. aeruginosa Fluoroquinolone resistant P. aeruginosa 320 [64]
Susceptible P. aeruginosa 527
Hirakata et al. (2003) Retrospective Observational Tertiary; Japan Genitourinary, respiratory, wound Culture positive results for blaIMP-positive or negative P. aeruginosa; control subjects selected at random from among inpatients; control subjects samples were blaIMP-negative P. aeruginosa blaIMP-positive P. aeruginosa 69 [69]
      blaIMP-negative P. aeruginosa 247  
Kaminski et al. (2011) Nested case cohort ICU; France Respiratory Culture positive results for Ureido/carboxypenicillin susceptible or resistant P. aeruginosa Ureido/carboxypenicillin-resistant P. aeruginosa 70 [66]
Susceptible P. aeruginosa 153
Lambert et al. (2011) Prospective Observational ICU; EU Respiratory Susceptibility testing in different centers was done according to local policies Ceftazidime resistant P. aeruginosa 366 [31]
Susceptible P. aeruginosa 1266
Lautenbach et al. (2010) Retrospective Observational Tertiary; USA Genitourinary, respiratory wound, blood, tissue Culture positive results for imipenem susceptible or resistant P. aeruginosa Imipenem resistant P. aeruginosa 253 [63]
Susceptible P. aeruginosa 2289
Montero et al. (2009) Retrospective Observational Tertiary; Spain Respiratory Culture positive results for P. aeruginosa; MDR when the absence of susceptibility to three or more antibiotic families (betalactams, quinolones, carbapenems, and aminoglycosides); control patients also had nosocomial infection (20% with P. aeruginosa), but were not multidrug-resistant MDR P. aeruginosa 50 [58]
Control 50
Morales et al. (2012) Retrospective Observational Tertiary; Spain Genitourinary, respiratory, wound Culture positive results for susceptible or resistant P. aeruginosa; MDR when strains were resistant to carbapenems, β-lactams, quinolones, tobramycin, and gentamicin MDR P. aeruginosa 134 [49]
Resistant P. aeruginosa 119
Susceptible P. aeruginosa 149
Paramythiotou et al. (2004) Retrospective Observational (matched) ICU; France Genitourinary, respiratory, wound Culture positive results for susceptible or resistant P. aeruginosa; MDR were resistant to piperacillin, ceftazidime, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin; control patient was hospitalized in the same ICU as the corresponding case participant during the study period but whose microbiological cultures for P. aeruginosa showed no growth at any time during their ICU stay. Controls matched to cases for length of ICU stay. MDR P. aeruginosa 37 [54]
Control 34
Peña et al. (2013) Retrospective Observational Tertiary; Spain Respiratory MDR defined as strains non-susceptible to > = 1 agent in > = 3 anti-pseudomonal antimicrobial categories (carbapenems, β-lactams, quinolones, tobramycin, and gentamicin) MDR P. aeruginosa 27 [56]
Susceptible P. aeruginosa 56
Scheetz et al. (2006) Retrospective Observational Tertiary; USA Blood Culture positive results for fluoroquinolone susceptible or resistant P. aeruginosa Fluoroquinolone resistant P. aeruginosa 79 [65]
Fluoroquinolone susceptible P. aeruginosa 136
Söderström et al. (2009) Retrospective Observational (matched) Tertiary; Finland Wound Culture positive results for resistant P. aeruginosa to ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, and a combination of piperacillin and tazobactam; A control participant with negative MDR P. aeruginosa culture was matched to each study participant (a drug-sensitive strain of P. aeruginosa was cultured from 31 control participants (48%)) MDR P. aeruginosa 64 [59]
Control 64
Tam et al. (2009) Retrospective Observational Tertiary; USA Blood Culture positive results for AmpC++ by ceftazidime susceptibility with and without clavulanic acid AmpC++ P. aeruginosa 21 [72]
Wild-type P. aeruginosa 33
Tam et al. (2010) Retrospective Observational Tertiary; USA Blood MDR was defined as culture positive results for resistance to three or more of the following four classes of agents: antipseudomonal carbapenems, antipseudomonal β-lactams (penicillins and cephalosporins), aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones MDR P. aeruginosa 25 [13]
Susceptible P. aeruginosa 84
Trouillet et al. (2002) Prospective Observational ICU; France Respiratory Culture positive results for piperacillin susceptible or resistant P. aeruginosa Piperacillin resistant P. aeruginosa 34 [67]
Piperacillin susceptible P. aeruginosa 101
Tumbarello et al. (2013) Retrospective Observational ICU; Italy Respiratory Culture positive results for piperacillin susceptible or resistant P. aeruginosa; MDR if in vitro resistance to >1 antipseudomonal agent in 3 or more of the following categories: β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors, cephalosporins, carbapenems, quinolones and aminoglycosides MDR P. aeruginosa 42 [55]
Non-MDR P. aeruginosa 68
Zavascki et al. (2006) Prospective Observational Tertiary; Brazil Blood, genitourinary, respiratory, wound Culture positive results for metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) –carrying versus non-MBL- carrying P. aeruginosa MBL-carrying P. aeruginosa 86 [70]
Non-MBL-carrying P. aeruginosa 212