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Table 2 Maturity of ASP interventions in academic and non-academic hospitals

From: Evaluation of early implementations of antibiotic stewardship program initiatives in nine Dutch hospitals

  Academic hospitals Non-academic hospitals
  Impl In dev Need Unneed N/A* Impl In dev Need Unneed N/A*
Antibiotic team 6 (75%) 2 (25%)   - - 6 (55%) 5 (45%) - - -
(Local) antibiotic guidelines 7 (88%) 1 (12%) - - - 9 (82%) 2 (18%) - - -
Antibiotic formulary 7 (88%) 1 (13%) - - - 8 (73%) 2 (18%) 1 (9%) - -
Audit-and-feedback 3 (38%) 2 (25%) 2 (25%) - 1 (13%) - 4 (36%) 6 (55%) 1 (9%) -
Education 4 (50%) 4 (50%) - - - 2 (18%) 8 (73%) 1 (9%) - -
Information systems for ASP 2 (25%) 1 (13%) 5 (63%) - - 2 (18%) 4 (36%) 3 (27%) - 2 (18%)
Benchmarking 4 (50%) 3 (38%) - 1 (13%) - 1 (9%) 7 (64%) 2 (18%) - 1 (9%)
Restriction 2 (25%) 4 (50%) 1 (13%) 1 (13%)    5 (45%) 3 (27%) 1 (9%) 2 (18%)
Academic detailing 1 (13%) 3 (38%) 3 (38%) - 1 (13%) 2 (18%) 2 (18%) 4 (36%) - 3 (27%)
Automatic stop-order - 1 (13%) 4 (50%) 2 (25%) 1 (13%) - 4 (36%) 3 (27%) 2 (18%) 2 (18%)
Pre-authorization 1 (13%) 1 (13%) 3 (38%) 1 (13%) 2 (25%) - 2 (18%) 3 (27%) 1 (9%) 5 (45%)
Automatic substitution - 1 (13%) 2 (25%) 5 (63%)   - 1 (9%) 3 (27%) 2 (18%) 5 (45%)
Antibiotic cycling - 1 (13%) 1 (13%) 4 (50%) 2 (25%) - - 5 (45%) 2 (18%) 4 (36%)
  1. *) Impl: implemented; in dev: in development; need: are needed; unneed: are unneeded; N/A: no answer or not applicable.