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Table 1 Selected studies that specifically assessed the role of hand hygiene enhancement on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus rates

From: The effect of improved hand hygiene on nosocomial MRSA control

First author and year Trial design Setting Hand hygiene enhancement strategy Other interventions to reduce MRSA
Pittet et al. [3] Quasi-experimental Hospital-wide ABHR, staff education, reminders, performance feedback and administrative involvement On-site surveillance, implementation of prevention guidelines, outbreak investigations, and environmental sanitization
Johnson et al. [5] Quasi-experimental Hospital-wide ABHR, staff education, reminders, performance and feedback and culture change program Enhanced cleaning of healthcare equipment, and decolonization of MRSA patients
Grayson et al. [7] Quasi-experimental Multiple hospitals ABHR, education, performance feedback and recommendations for culture change Individual hospitals observed various MRSA control measures
Stone et al. [10] Prospective ecological Acute NHS hospital trusts, United Kingdom ABHR, reminders, audit and performance feedback and patient empowerment Saving lives campaign, Health Act 2006, and visit to trusts by Department of Health improvement team
Kirkland et al. [11] Before and after study Hospital-wide Leadership accountability, measurement/performance feedback, ABHR, education/training and marketing/communication None reported
Lee et al. [15] Prospective interventional cohort study Surgical wards Hand hygiene improvement program as per WHO guideline Screening and contact isolation and targeted decolonization
Derde et al. [17] Hybrid prospective interventional cohort study and RCT Intensive care units Hand hygiene improvement program as per WHO guideline Universal decolonization in phase 2 and screening and isolation in phase 3
  1. Abbreviations: MRSA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ABHR alcohol-based handrubs, NHS National Health Service, RCT randomized controlled trial.