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Table 2 Health care worker hand hygiene adherence rates at baseline and following implementation of the WHO multimodal hand hygiene strategy

From: Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Characteristic Hand hygiene adherence
[Number adherent/number of observations (%)]
  Baseline Post-intervention P c
Total 21/1000 (2.1%) 127/1000 (12.7%) <0.001
Location of observation    
 Emergency dept. 11/217 (5.1%) 62/250 (24.8%) <0.001
 Medicine ward 4/265 (1.5%) 25/250 (10.0%) <0.001
 OB/GYNa ward 3/200 (1.5%) 23/250 (9.2%) <0.001
 Surgery ward 3/318 (0.9%) 17/250 (6.8%) <0.001
Type of HCW    
 Attending 2/69 (2.9%) 4/69 (5.8%) 0.40
 Resident 7/436 (1.6%) 30/211 (14.2%) <0.001
 Medical student 3/291 (1.0%) 20/254 (7.9%) <0.001
 Nurse 5/144 (3.5%) 62/322 (19.3%) <0.001
 Other HCWsb 4/60 (6.7%) 11/144 (7.6%) 0.81
Timing    
 During attending rounds 5/351 (1.4%) 9/205 (4.4%) 0.03
 Not during rounds 16/649 (2.5%) 118/795 (14.8%) <0.001
Patient contact    
 Before patient contact 3/398 (0.8%) 25/250 (10.0%) <0.001
 After patient contact 18/602 (3.0%) 102/750 (13.6%) <0.001
  1. aOB/GYN: obstetrics and gynecology; bHCW: health care worker; c P-value between pre and post intervention period.