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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate analysis of predictors for hand hygiene adherence

From: Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Characteristic Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
OR (95% CI) P aOR (95% CI) Pc
Post-intervention period (vs. baseline period) 6.8 (4.2-10.9) <0.001 5.7 (3.5-9.3) <0.001
Location of observation     
 Surgery ward 1.00 - 1.00 -
 Medicine ward 1.6 (0.9-2.9) 0.10 1.8 (1.0-3.3) 0.07
 OB/GYNa ward 1.7 (0.9-3.1) 0.09 1.7 (0.9-3.2) 0.11
 Emergency dept. 5.1 (3.0-8.5) <0.001 4.9 (2.8-8.6) <0.001
Type of HCWb     
 Attending physician 1.00 - 1.00 -
 Resident physician 1.3 (0.6-3.2) 0.52 1.4 (0.6-3.7) 0.46
 Medical student 1.0 (0.4-2.4) 0.95 0.50 (0.2-1.4) 0.17
 Nurse 3.7 (1.6-8.7) 0.003 1.2 (0.5-3.2) 0.68
 Other HCW 1.8 (0.7-4.6) 0.26 0.89 (0.3-2.6) 0.83
Timing of hand hygiene     
 During attending rounds 1.00 - 1.00 -
 Not during attending rounds 4.0 (2.2-23.2) <0.001 2.4 (1.2-4.5) 0.009
Patient contact     
Before contact 1.00 - 1.00 -
After contact 2.2 (1.4-3.3) <0.001 2.1 (1.4-3.3) 0.001
  1. aOB/GYN: obstetrics and gynecology; bHCW: health care worker; cP-value between pre and post intervention period.
  2. OR = Odds Ratio; aOR = Adjusted Odds Ratio.