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Table 2 Univariate analysis of risk factors associated with CRE carriage

From: Risk factors for acquisition of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae in an acute tertiary care hospital in Singapore

Risk factors CP-CRE patients Control X = value/Mann-Whitney U Odds Ratio
(N = 203) (N = 203) (p-value/Fisher Exact) [95 % Cl]
n (%) n (%)   
Total length of stay ± SD 48.0 ± 59.5 3.9 ± 3 8 U: 3223 1.266 [1.197–1.340]
(days) (39.8–56.3) (3.4–4.5) (<0.001) (<0.001)
(moan days 95 % confidence interval)     
History of previous overseas hospitalisation 29 (14.3 %) 1 (0.5 %) 28.218 (<0.001)** 33.667 [4.539–259.700]
History of travelling in past 90 days 29 (14.3 %) 15 7.4 %) 4.996 (0.025)* 2.089 [10.83.4.028]
Ambulant on arrival 103 (50.7 %) 153 (75.4 %) 26.432 (<0.001)** 0.337 [0.221–0.513]
Admission to CU 54 (26.6 %) 6 (3.0 %) 45.059 (<0.001)** 11.899 [4.986–28.399]
Mean ICU stay ± SD, day 9.6 ± 12.2 1.2 ± 1.0 U: 46.0 (<0.004)** -
(mean days 95 % confidence interval) (6.3—13.0) (0.1—2.2)   
Admission to HD/ICA 106 (52.2 %) 29 (14.3 %) 65.797 (<0.001)** 6.557 [4.057–10.596]
Mean HD/ICA stay ± SD, day 5.3 ± 6.1 2.0 ± 1.7 9.0 (0.372) -
(mean days 95 % confidence interval) (4.1–6.5) (1.4–2.7)   
Cardiovascular disease comorbidity 105 (51.7 %) 74 (36.5 %) 9.602 (0.002)** 1.868 [1.256–2.778]
Diabetes mellitus comorbidity 67 (33.0 %) 58 (28.6 %) 0.936 (0.333) 1.232 [0.807–1.870]
Malignancy cormorbidity 57 (28.1 %) 41 (20.2 %) 3.443 (0.064) 1.543 [0.974–2.442]
Immunodeficiency comorbidity 10 (4.9 %) 2 (1.0 %) 5.496 (0.019)* 5.207 [1.126–24.072]
Haematology comorbidity 20 (9.9 %) 5 (2.5 %) 9.591 (0.002)** 4.328 [1.592–11.769]
Exposure to DXT 23 (11.3 %) 11 (5.4 %) 4.622 (0.032)* 2.230 [1.057–4.706]
Exposure to steroid 34 (16.7 %) 12 (5.9 %) 11.866 (0.001)** 3.202 [1.606–6.384]
Exposure to chemotherapy 15 (7.4 %) 16 (7.9 %) 0.035 (0.852) 0.933 [0.448–1.941]
Exposure to penicillin antibiotics 33 (16 3 %) 7 (3.4 %) 18.747 (<0.001)** 5.435 [2.344–12.604]
Exposure to β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations antibiotics 122 (60.1 %) 59 (29.1 %) 39.568 (<0.001)** 3.676 [2.432–5.557]
Exposure to cephalosporin antibiotics 65 (32.0 %) 43 (21.2 %) 6.106 (0.013)* 1.753 [1.120–2.742]
Exposure to carbapenems antibiotics 62 (30.5 %) 5 (2.5 %) 58.077 (<0.001)** 17.413 [6.826–44.417]
Exposure to fluoroquinolones antibiotics 35 (17.2 %) 19 (9.4 %) 5.468 (0.019)* 2.018 [1.111–3.663]
Exposure to glycopeptide antibiotics 69 (34.0 %) 4 (2.0 %) 70.564 (<0001)** 25.618 [9.132–71.865]
Exposure to metronidazole antibiotics 36 (17.7 %) 15 (7.4 %) 9.889 (0.002)** 2.702 [1.428–5.110]
Exposure to aminoglycosides antibiotics 17 (8.4 %) 1 (0.5 %) 14.882 (<0.001)** 18.462 [2433–140,097]
Presence of central line device 80 (39.4 %) 11 (5.4 %) 67.433 (<0.001)** 11.353 [5.811–22.179]
Presence of urinary catheter device 86 (42.4 %) 30 (14.8 %) 37.842 (<0.001)** 4.239 [2.630–6.831]
Presence of ETT device 42 (20.7 %) 6 (3.0 %) 30.620 (<0.001)** 8.565 [3.55 1–20.658]
Presence of intra-arterial line device 24 (11.8 %) 5 (2.5 %) 13.406 (<0.001)** 5.309 [1.984–14.2 11]
Presence of drains device 31 (15.3 %) 11 (5.4 %) 10.623 (0.001)** 3.146 [1.534–6.450]
Presence of enteral feeding device 49 (24.1 %) 11 (5.4 %) 28.240 (<0.001)** 5.554 [2.793–11.044]
Presence of additional MRSA 47 (23.2 %) 26 (12.8 %) 7.365 (0.007)** 2.051 [1.213–3.468]
Presence of additional VRE 32 (15.8 %) 5 (2.5 %) 21.678 (<0.001)** 7.411 [2.825-19.441]
Exposure to bronchoscopy procedure 22 (10.8 %) 4 (2.0 %) 13.314 (<0.001)** 6.047 [2.045–17.881]
Exposure to gastroscopy procedure 18 (8.9 %) 10 (4.9 %) 2.455 (0.117) 1.878 [0.845–4.175]
Exposure to colonoscopy procedure 4 (2.0 %) 6 (3.0 %) 0.410 (0.522) 0.660 [0.183–2.375]
Exposure to angiogram procedure 9 (4.4 %) 6 (3.0 %) 0.623 (0.430) 1.523 [0.532–4361]
Underwent surgery 141 (69.5 %) 146 (71.9 %) 0.297 (0.586) 1.126 [0.734–1.727]
  1. *p < 0.05 (Significance of association; 2-tailed), **p < 0.01 (Significance of association; 2-tailed)