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Table 1 Risk factors for colonization with Gram-negative bacteria in 235 transfer patients

From: Colonization with resistant microorganisms in patients transferred from abroad: who needs to be screened?

Variable* Positive N Negative N Univariate analysis odds Ratio (95%CI) p value Multivariate analysis odds Ratio (95%CI) p value
sex (female) 20 (47.6 %) 77 (39.9 %) 1.4 (0.7-2.7) 0.36   
Age 53 (±16.6) 55.4 (±19.6) 0.99 (0.98-1.01) 0.46   
Swiss residents 37 (88.1 %) 178 (92.2 %) 0.6 (0.2-1.8) 0.37   
Inpatient hospitalization in Bern 36 (85.7 %) 170 (88.1 %) 0.8 (0.3-2.1) 0.67   
 • Intensive care unit 10 (23.8 %) 29 (15.0 %) 1.8 (0.8-3.98) 0.17   
 • surgical wards 13 (31.0 %) 74 (38.3 %) 0.7 (0.4-1.5) 0.37   
 • medical wards 13 (31.0 %) 67 (34.7 %) 0.8 (0.4-1.7) 0.64   
Number of swabs/samples 4 (3-10) 3 (3-9) 1.4 (1.1-1.7) 0.03   
Risk factors on admission:       
Medical device 13 (31.0 %) 41 (21.2 %) 1.7 (0.8-3.5) 0.18   
 • urinary catheter 10 (23.8 %) 36 (18.7 %) 1.4 (6.1-3.02) 0.45   
 • intubation/ tracheostomy 6 (14.3 %) 11 (5.7 %) 2.8 (0.96-7.9) 0.09   
 • wound drain 3 (7.1 %) 4 (2.1 %) 3.6 (0.8-16.9) 0.11   
Skin lesion 17 (40.5 %) 34 (17.6 %) 3.2 (1.5-6.5) 0.001 1.9 (0.7-4.7) 0.18
Number of risk factors 0 (0-3) 0 (0-3) 2.02 (1.4-2.97) 0.0006   
Antibiotic treatment 17 (40.5 %) 43 (22.3 %) 2.4 (1.2-4.8) 0.014 1.3 (0.5-3.3) 0.54
 • number of antibiotics 0 (0-3) 0 (0-3) 1.7 (1.2-2.6) 0.008   
 • antibiotic days up to admission 8.5 (±11.7) 5.8 (±6.4) 1.03 (0.96-1.1) 0.31   
Active infection 15 (37.5 %) 29 (15.9 %) 3.2 (1.5-6.8) 0.002 2.7 (1.07-6.6) 0.035
Surgical procedure abroad 15 35.7 % 33 17.1 % 2.7 (1.3-5.6) 0.007 1.5 (0.6-3.8) 0.39
Direct transfer 24 (57.1 %) 123 (63.7 %) 0.8 (0.4-1.5) 0.42   
Indirect transfer, days between last exposure abroad until admission 22 (±24.6) 21 (±28.9) 1.0 (0.98-1.02) 0.92   
Individual transportation 13 (31.0 %) 55 (28.5 %) 1.1 (0.5-2.3) 0.75   
Europe 18 (42.9 %) 142 (73.6 %) 0.3 (0.1-0.5) <0.001   
 • Switzerland 2 (4.8 %) 13 (6.7 %) 0.7 (0.2-3.2) 1   
 • Spain 4 (9.5 %) 25 (13.0 %) 0.7 (0.2-2.2) 0.54   
 • Italy 2 (4.8 %) 27 (14.0 %) 0.3 (0.1-1.4) 0.099   
 • France 4 (9.5 %) 15 (7.8 %) 1.2 (0.4-3.97) 0.754   
Outside Europe 24 (57.1 %) 51 (26.4 %) 3.7 (1.9-7.4) <0.001 3.2 (1.5-6.8) 0.002
 • Asia 14 (33.3 %) 25 (13.0 %) 3.4 (1.6-7.2) 0.001   
o south/southeast Asia 9 (21.4 %) 11 (5.7 %) 4.5 (1.7-11.7) 0.003   
 • Africa 6 (14.3 %) 11 (5.7 %) 2.8 (0.96-7.9) 0.09   
 • America (North, South) 3 (7.1 %) 13 (6.7 %) 1.1 (0.3-3.9) 1   
  1. *Mean (± standard deviation, SD) for normal distribution or median (range) for others
  2. Note. Transfer patients are patients who were exposed to a healthcare system abroad or in a high prevalence region in Switzerland over the past six months