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Table 1 Patients baseline characteristics and surgical factors

From: The effect of preheated versus room-temperature skin disinfection on bacterial colonization during pacemaker device implantation: a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial

Skin disinfection (chlorhexidine 5 mg/mL in 70 % ethanol) 36 °C 20 °C
Characteristics N = 108 N = 112
 Age (years), mean (SD) 72 (11.9) 74 (12.5)
 Body mass index (BMI), mean (SD) 27 (4.5) 27 (5.4)
 Length of surgery, minutes, median (IQR) 33 (30) 34 (32)
 Colony forming units, median (IQR) 1180 (4690) 2080 (4770)
 Male, % 55 57
 Eczema, % 6 5
 Incision site hair shorten, % 31 26
 Diabetes, % 14 18
 Bacterial skin growth, % 95 96
Type of surgery   
 Device change, % 45.4 46.4
 DDD, % 35.2 36.6
 VVI, % 6.5 6.3
 ICD, % 1.9 3.6
 CRT, % 1.9 1.8
 Other, % 9.2 5.4
  1. DDD, dual chamber rate adaptive pacemaker. VVI, single ventricular rate adaptive pacemaker. ICD, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. CRT, cardiac resynchronization therapy. Continuous and dichotomous variables were analysed using t-test and Mann Whitney U test, no significant differences between groups
  2. Comparison of patients’ characteristics and the surgical factors within each group (disinfectant at 36 °C or 20 °C, respectively)