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Table 2 Bacterial growth at the four time points

From: The effect of preheated versus room-temperature skin disinfection on bacterial colonization during pacemaker device implantation: a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial

Skin disinfection (chlorhexidine 5 mg/mL in 70 % ethanol) All Men Women
36 °C 20 °C Absolute difference 36 °C 20 °C 36 °C 20 °C
n = 106 n = 112 (90 % CI) n = 62 n = 62 n = 44 n = 50
Before skin disinfection 95.3 96.4   100 100 88.6 92
After skin disinfectiona 28.6 28.6 0 (−0.101 to 0.101) 40.3 43.5 11.6 10
After incision (wound) 24.5 30.4 −0.059 (−0,158 to 0.040) 40.3 45.2 2.3 12
Before wound closure (wound) 53.8 62.5 −0.087 (−0,197 to 0,023) 74.2 82.3 25 38
  1. Proportion of swabs from patients that showed any bacterial growth at the various time points. Data are shown as percentages and absolute difference with confidence intervals (CI)
  2. aPrimary outcome