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Table 2 Univariate odds ratios of Candida colonization at hospital admission

From: Risk factors for Candida colonization and Co-colonization with multi-drug resistant organisms at admission

Characteristic Odds ratio 95 % Confidence interval
Age (yr) 1.01 0.99–1.03
Body mass index 0.99 0.97 – 1.02
Gender (male vs. female) 1.00 0.63–1.57
Ambulatory Status (ambulatory vs non-ambulatory) 0.44 0.27 – 0.70
Alcohol use 1.34 0.84–2.15
Surgery 0.44 0.20–1.00
Coronary artery disease 1.38 0.82–2.31
Chemotherapy 0.26 0.09–0.75
Lung Disease 1.16 0.60–2.24
Hypertension 1.06 0.67–1.67
Immunosuppression 0.93 0.58–1.48
Malnutrition 1.67 0.94 – 2.95
Cancer 0.59 0.35–1.01
Peripheral vascular disease 1.80 0.83–3.90
Renal Failure 0.65 0.36–1.19
Steroids 0.81 0.50–1.32
Abdominal drain 1.01 0.33–3.07
Non-insulin dependent diabetes 1.59 0.81–3.13
Insulin-dependent diabetes 0.93 0.53–1.63
Foley Catheter 1.16 0.69–1.95
Hemodialysis 1.39 0.57 – 3.35
Neutropenia 1.17 0.32–4.28
Open wound 1.09 0.63–1.90
Transplant 1.00 0.58–1.71
Vascular catheter 1.37 0.46 – 4.07
Vent support 3.32 1.30–8.50
History of Candida 2.07 1.11–3.84
History of MRSAӨ 0.93 0.34–2.51
History of VREӨ <0.001 <0.001– >999.99
History of RGNӨ 1.04 0.47–2.34
Days in hospital in 2 years. prior (days) 1.00 1.00–1.00
Days in ICU in 2 years. prior (days) 1.03 0.99–1.07
Aminoglycosidesa 1.63 0.42– 6.26
Carbapenemsa <0.001 <0.001– >999.99
1st Gen Cephalosporinsa 0.57 0.22–1.50
2nd Gen Cephalosporinsa 0.47 0.06–3.76
3rd Gen Cephalosporinsa 1.12 0.47–2.66
4th Gen Cephalosporinsa 0.86 0.18–3.97
Glycopeptidesa 1.22 0.51–2.91
Lincosamidesa 1.95 0.78–4.88
Macrolidesa 1.13 0.45–2.85
Nitrofuransa 1.08 0.12–9.72
Penicillinsa 1.02 0.38–2.79
Penicillin Combinationsa 2.44 1.33–4.47
Fluoroquinolonesa 3.25 1.98–5.32
Sulfonamidesa 1.03 0.53–2.03
Tetracyclinesa 8.75 0.79–97.51
Drugs against mycobacteriaa 1.08 0.12–9.72
Other antibioticsb 1.77 0.67–4.68
  1. ӨMRSA = Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus; VRE = Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus; RGN = antibiotic resistant Gram-negative organisms
  2. All variables are dichotomous, yes vs. no, unless otherwise stated
  3. Estimate for each additional day in the hospital/ intensive care unit
  4. aAntibiotic use occurred prior to admission to hospital
  5. bOther antibiotics included use of either Metronidazole, Dapsone or Linezolid