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Table 5 Univariate odds ratios of Candida co-colonization at hospital admission

From: Risk factors for Candida colonization and Co-colonization with multi-drug resistant organisms at admission

Characteristic Odds ratio 95 % Confidence interval
Age (yr) 1.01 0.99–1.04
Body mass index 1.01 0.97 – 1.05
Gender (male vs. female) 1.59 0.77–3.19
Ambulatory Status (ambulatory vs. non-ambulatory) 0.67 0.32 – 1.40
Alcohol use 1.28 0.61–2.66
Surgery 0.38 0.09–1.62
Coronary artery disease 1.13 0.50–2.59
Chemotherapy 0.68 0.20–2.29
Lung Disease 1.60 0.63–4.04
Hypertension 0.82 0.40–1.66
Immunosuppression 0.66 0.31–1.42
Malnutrition 4.62 2.21–9.68
Cancer 0.83 0.37–1.82
Peripheral vascular disease 1.34 0.39–4.61
Renal Failure 1.92 0.90–4.09
Steroids 0.68 0.31–1.50
Abdominal drain 0.68 0.09–5.26
Non-insulin dependent diabetes 1.24 0.42–3.68
Insulin-dependent diabetes 1.19 0.52–2.72
Foley Catheter 1.95 0.93–4.10
Hemodialysis 1.72 0.49 – 6.02
Neutropenia 1.07 0.14 – 8.42
Open wound 1.73 0.80–3.76
Surgical wound 1.23 0.49 – 3.09
Transplant 0.47 0.16–1.37
Vascular catheter 0.90 0.20 – 3.97
Vent support 1.68 0.37–7.59
History of Candida 1.43 0.53–3.86
History of MRSAӨ 7.03 2.82 – 17.52
History of VREӨ 2.02 0.24 – 16.91
History of GNӨ 1.57 0.53–4.72
Days in hospital in 2 years. prior to admit (days) 1.00 1.00–1.00
Days in ICU in 2 years. prior to admit (days) 1.07 1.03–1.12
Aminoglycosidesa 1.41 0.17–11.31
Carbapenemsa 14.74 2.01–108.22
1st Gen Cephalosporinsa 1.11 0.32–3.80
3rd Gen Cephalosporinsa 2.65 0.95–7.37
4th Gen Caphalosporinsa 1.27 0.16 – 10.17
Glycopeptides 2.86 1.02 – 7.99
Lincosamidesa 0.62 0.08–4.75
Macrolidesa 3.24 1.15–9.13
Penicillinsa 2.74 0.89–8.48
Penicillin Combinationsa 1.40 0.52–3.78
Fluoroquinolonesa 1.76 0.81–3.82
Sulfonamidesa 0.20 0.03–1.52
Drugs against mycobacteriaa 9.81 1.58 – 60.88
Other antibioticsb 4.94 1.69–14.48
  1. Ө MRSA Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, VRE Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus, RGN antibiotic resistant Gram-negative organisms All variables are dichotomous, yes vs. no, unless otherwise stated
  2. Estimate for each additional day in the hospital/ intensive care unit
  3. aAntibiotic use occurred prior to admission to hospital
  4. bOther antibiotics included use of either Metronidazole, Dapsone or Linezolid