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Table 3 Cost estimation of the practice of non-prescription-based antimicrobial sales in the private sector

From: Pharmacy-based dispensing of antimicrobial agents without prescription in India: appropriateness and cost burden in the private sector

  Scenario 1 Scenario 2
Total population in India (in 2013) [13] 1267 1267
Population 15 years and above [13] 900 900
Population 0–14 years [13] 367 367
Cost of antibiotics - 5-day course [9] $ 1.9 $ 1.9
Number of annual upper respiratory infection episodes in adults [10] 2.5 2.5
Number of annual diarrhea episodes in children [11,12] 2.1 2.1
Total number of upper respiratory infection episodes in adults 2249 2249
Total number of diarrhea episodes children 772 772
Total number of ALL episodes in the population 3021 3,021
Proportion of ill population visiting allopathic pharmacies [15,16] 30 % 45 %
Total number of ill population visiting pharmacies 906 1359
66 % dispense antimicrobial drugs (based on study) 598 897
Total annual cost of unwarranted antimicrobial drugs 1136 1704
  1. The estimation takes into account existing data on population size, infection episodes per year for each age group, and proportion of population visiting allopathic pharmacies. Two scenarios are considered based on whether 30 % or 45 % of the ill population visits pharmacies. Numbers shown are in millions