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Table 5 Univariate associations between possible risk factors in clinical patients and being HR-GNR positive

From: Prevalence, risk factors and molecular epidemiology of highly resistant gram negative rods in hospitalized patients in the Dutch region Kennemerland

Risk factor HR-GNR positive patients (n = 21)a HR-GNR negative patients (n = 404)a Odds ratio (95 % CI) P-value
Sex     
 Female 9 (42.9) 199 (49.3) 1 (ref) -
 Male 12 (57.1) 205 (50.7) 1.29 (0.53–3.14) 0.568
Used antibiotics 6 months before current admission 6 (28.6) 93 (23.0) 1.34 (0.51–3.55) 0.559
Used antibiotics during admission 10 (47.6) 157 (38.9) 1.43 (0.59–3.45) 0.425
Admitted before current admission (up to 1 year) 14 (66.7) 190 (47.0) 2.25 (0.89–5.70) 0.086
Known HR-GNR positive in the past 3 (14.3) 9 (2.2) 7.32 (1.82–29.35) 0.005
Age (years)     
 Group 1 (0–56 years) 4 (19.0) 103 (25.5) 1 (ref) -
 Group 2 (57–70 years) 5 (23.8) 99 (24.5) 1.30 (0.34–4.98) 0.701
 Group 3 (71–79 years) 9 (42.9) 101 (25.0) 2.30 (0.69–7.69) 0.178
 Group 4 (80–94 years) 3 (14.3) 101 (25.0) 0.77 (0.17–3.50) 0.730
Time from admission to sampling (days)     
 Group 1 (0–1 days) 7 (33.3) 126 (31.2) 1 (ref) -
 Group 2 (2–3 days) 3 (14.3) 90 (22.3) 0.60 (0.15–2.38) 0.468
 Group 3 (4–6 days) 3 (14.3) 85 (21.0) 0.64 (0.16–2.53) 0.519
 Group 4 (7–48 days) 8 (38.1) 103 (25.5) 1.40 (0.49–3.98) 0.531
  1. aIn total, data for 425 patients were available for analyses, as for two patients demographic data were unknown