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Table 1 Evaluation Variables

From: Serious electronic games as behavioural change interventions in healthcare-associated infections and infection prevention and control: a scoping review of the literature and future directions

Process evaluation variables: a) evaluation methods: sampling, duration, data collection (pre-/in-/post-game, use of frameworks, comparison, nature of evaluators (multiplicity, independency), reflexivity on risk of bias (roles of researchers, internal/external validity), etc.; b) identification of active component of game intervention (explanation about mechanisms by which game components may facilitate intended changes); game concept; learning model [18]; behaviour change model [30]; engagement with the game, etc.
Context evaluation variables: a) inner context: characteristics of adopting individual/organisation/setting; structure (e.g. size of organisation); culture (e.g. organisational commitment); cognitive (e.g. psychological safety); characteristics of participants (gamers) such as socio-demographic (e.g. age, gender, ethnicity); expertise/professional background, position, (previous gaming) experience; personality; learning styles; game skills/attitudes; intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, etc.; b) outer context (macro-context): incentives and mandates, networks, environmental stability, socio-political climate, etc [18].
Outcome evaluation variables: a) actual use: users’ perceptions about usability, acceptance, and/or attractiveness of the game intervention; users’ knowledge, attitude, behavioural change; clinical effectiveness, efficacy (e.g. dose – effect relations), cost-benefit, unintended outcomes, etc.; b) application: scalability, sustainability, fidelity [31], adaptation, etc.