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Table 3 Descriptive overview of studies selected

From: Serious electronic games as behavioural change interventions in healthcare-associated infections and infection prevention and control: a scoping review of the literature and future directions

Authors, Year, Ref Study 1
Sax and Longtin 2011 [22]
Study 2
Vázquez- Vázquez et al. 2011 [23]
Study 3
Castro-Sánchez et al. 2014 [24]
Study 4
Venier et al. 2015 [25]
Type of paper Conference (presentation) Conference Journal article Conference (presentation)
Origin of the paper Switzerland (/Canada) Spain England France
Lead (type of organisation) University hospital Regional Patient Safety Observatory (Spain) University Coordination centre (fighting nosocomial infections)
Paper focusa i), ii) and iii) – Inception, scoping; design, development; pretesting, refinement; and successful launching described. No evaluation of implementation done besides pretesting. i) and ii) - Inception, scoping; design, development, implementation (launching), but no pretesting/pilot, evaluation done. i) and ii) – Inception, scoping; design, development. No pretesting. Future evaluation provided. i), ii) and iv) – brief description about inception, scoping, development, and more focusing on description about implementation of a large scale survey, and its evaluation. No pretesting/pilot studies.
Name of game Story-based serious game Serious for hand hygiene training. ‘On call: antibiotics’ Flu.0
Description of game intervention Game users can decide where to use hand hygiene and disposable gloves using story-based serious game in which 2 doctors are interacting with different patients during ward rounds. Emotional engagement, role identity development through medical specific distracting plot, and mental simulation. Immediate feedback messages and tracking mechanism of results are also incorporated. Promotion of hand hygiene using WHO’s ‘Five Moments for Hand Hygiene’ with a ludic approach. A non-risk environment was created without any adverse effects from actions of game users, who have to decide when and how hand hygiene should be performed in a 3D setting with different hotspots. Every decision is followed by feedback to strengthen success or to explain why game users performed incorrectly. Low cognitive erosion to keep the playability. Serious game for antimicrobial prescribing decisions in virtual hospital patients. Prescribers receive clinical information and have to make diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. They get immediate feedback on performance and wider impacts of prescribing decisions. Personalisation/scores/leader boards and difficulty enhancement mechanisms incorporated in the game to sustain engagement. Serious game for nurses and doctors to educate 8 key points to know and to do when dealing with one or more patients with flu.
  1. ai) inception, scoping, ideation; ii) design, development, configuration; iii) small-scale implementation (pretesting/piloting), refinement; iv) large-scale, wide implementation, sustainability