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Table 3 CLABSI prevention: clinical practices during insertion and maintenance by income category, as reported by ICU doctors and nurses in 2015

From: Poor adherence to guidelines for preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI): results of a worldwide survey

  Middle income countries (14 countries) High income countries (27 countries)
N = 836 N = 2,414
%* SE** %* SE**
Procedures at insertion
In my ICU, the following procedures were used during the last catheter insertion I did or assisted in…
  Hand hygiene before central line insertion 97 0.7 98 0.3
  Using mask, cap, sterile gloves and sterile gown 93 1.0 96 0.5
  Using chlorhexidine >0.5% in alcohol for skin preparation 58 2.1 85 0.9
  Using sterile drapes to cover patient from head to toes 51 2.1 82 0.9
  Using antimicrobial ointment at insertion site (NR***) 14 1.4 9 0.9
  Administering systemic antimicrobial prophylaxis for CLABSI prevention (NR***) 24 1.8 8 0.7
 Four recommended practices and none of not recommended 23 1.7 62 1.4
Insertion site
Ultrasound guidance was used last time central line was inserted in the internal jugular vein (%yes) 50 2.1 79 1.1
   In my ICU, the femoral vein is used always, or most of the time (NR***) 15 1.3 11 0.9
Procedures at maintenance
When I last accessed a central-line, I…
  Disinfected central line hubs when accessing ports 84 1.5 82 1.0
  Disinfected my hands before 87 1.4 88 0.9
  Used gloves 59 2.1 84 1.4
Change of dressing (if not soiled, damped or loose)
  Dry Dressing (sterile gauze)     
  every 2 days 20 1.7 15 1.0
  more often (NR***) 31 1.9 24 1.2
  less often (NR***) 34 2.0 29 1.1
  Don’t know 15 1.5 32 1.4
 Transparent Dressing
  every 5-7 days 22 1.7 41 1.5
  more often (NR***) 70 1.9 40 1.2
  less often (NR***) 2 0.5 2 0.4
  Don’t know 6 0.9 17 1.1
In my ICU, patients with a central line are assessed daily for the need or removal of it (explicitly: with a note in clinical file, or a tick on a check list) 60 2.0 73 1.2
  1. *Absolute numbers are not reported because percentages are weighted estimates
  2. **Standard error
  3. ***Not recommended