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Table 2 Factors Associated with Antibiotic Use among 1884 Fever Patients at Febrile Polyclinics, December 2007-February 2013

From: Patterns of medication use and factors associated with antibiotic use among adult fever patients at Singapore primary care clinics

Characteristics Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted OR (95% CI) p-value
Age (years)a
 17–24 1 0.0463 1 0.7211
 25–34 0.70 (0.49–1.00) 0.95 (0.64–1.41)
 35–44 1.09 (0.75–1.59) 1.26 (0.83–1.93)
 45–54 1.15 (0.78–1.69) 1.14 (0.74–1.76)
 55–64 1.19 (0.77–1.83) 1.14 (0.70–1.84)
 65 and above 1.40 (0.80–2.42) 0.83 (0.45–1.55)
Gendera
 Female 1 0.0035 1 0.5817
 Male 0.69 (0.54–0.88) 0.92 (0.69–1.23)
Year of enrolmenta
 Dec 2007–2008 1 0.0037 1 0.0177
 2009 1.25 (0.75–2.09) 1.83 (1.04–3.23)
 2010 0.60 (0.37–0.96) 1.37 (0.79–2.36)
 2011 0.91 (0.57–1.44) 2.03 (1.18–3.47)
 2012-Feb 2013 0.78 (0.47–1.31) 1.24 (0.70–2.21)
Polyclinic enrolleda
 Polyclinic A 1 <0.0001 1 <0.0001
 Polyclinic B 0.17 (0.07–0.42) 0.22 (0.09–0.57)
 Polyclinic C 0.29 (0.21–0.41) 0.32 (0.22–0.45)
 Polyclinic D 0.35 (0.21–0.58) 0.32 (0.18–0.54)
 Polyclinic E 1.44 (0.74–2.82) 1.74 (0.80–3.78)
Body Mass Index (kg/m2)
 <18.5 1.98 (1.31–2.99)   1.87 (1.19–2.93)  
 18.5–22.9 1 0.0117 1 0. 0106
 23–27.4 1.08 (0.81–1.46)   0.91 (0.66–1.27)  
 ≥27.5 1.86 (1.32–2.60)   1.31 (0.90–1.92)
Housing type
 Public housing (HDB flat) 1 0.0270 1 0.0045
 Condominium 1.08 (0.58–2.00) 1.02 (0.51–2.03)
 Dormitory/Hostel 0.19 (0.09–0.37) 0.38 (0.18–0.79)
 Landed property 1.47 (0.94–2.28) 1.73 (1.06–2.80)
 Work site 0.49 (0.22–1.08) 0.70 (0.30–1.64)
Number of initial symptoms persisting at first follow-up
 0 1 0.0414 1 <0.0001
 1 2.00 (1.40–2.85) 2.00 (1.38–2.92)
 2 2.72 (1.88–3.92) 2.67 (1.80–3.97)
 3 4.66 (3.11–6.98) 4.26 (2.73–6.64)
 4 and above 2.57 (1.76–3.75) 2.79 (1.84–4.24)
WBC count (cells/μL) at initial visit
 Leukopenia (<4) 0.83 (0.51–1.35)   0.61 (0.38–0.99)  
 Normal range (4–11) 1 0.0097 1 <0.0001
 Leukocytosis (>11) 1.73 (1.19–2.51)   1.98 (1.42–2.78)  
Headache at initial visit
 No 1 0.0021 1 0.0239
 Yes 0.78 (0.60–1.01) 0.73 (0.54–0.97)
  1. HDB Housing and Development Board, OR odds ratio, WBC white blood cell
  2. aVariables included a priori as covariates in the model