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Table 1 Characteristics of the selected studies

From: Relationship between hospital ward design and healthcare-associated infection rates: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Setting Objective Design Number of patients Endpoint
Intervention: Control:
Birnbach et al. [13] Patient room replica To investigate the effect of the AHRD’s location on hand hygiene compliance (n = 3) intervention study Not applicable hand hygiene compliance
Giannitsioti et al. [14] Internal medical unit Not applicable hand hygiene compliance
Thomas et al. [15] Surgical ICU Not applicable disinfectant consumption
Ben-Abraham et al. [19] Pediatric ICU To investigate the association between single bedrooms versus multi bedrooms and healthcare associated colonization or infection rates
(n = 9)
115 78 Nosocomial infection, bacteremia
Bracco et al. [18] Surgical ICU 1619 903 Bacteremia
Acquisition of MRSA/
Ellison et al. [16] General medical ward 910 604 Infection with or Acquisition of MRSA, CD, VRE
Julian et al. [17] Neonatal ICU 912 884 CLOS, Acquisition of MRSA
Lazar et al. [21] Pediatric ICU 1061 3101 Bacteremia
Levin et al. [23] General ICU 62 62 Bacteremia, Acquisition of any multi-drug resistant organism
McManus et al. [20] Burn center ICU 914 1605 Bacteremia
Mulin et al. [22] Surgical ICU 179 135 Infection with Acinetobacter baumanii
Vietri et al. [24] General medical/surgical ICU 130 119 Acquisition of MRSA
Jones et al. [27] Neonatal ICU/Special Care Nursery To investigate the association of space per cot and infection rates Prospective observational study 152 149 Late-onset sepsis
Jou et al. [26] All hospital wards except ICU To investigate the association between patient room size and healthcare associated infection rates Case–control study 75 150 Infection with CD
Yu et al. [28] All hospital wards except pediatrics To investigate the risk factors for health-care associated outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome Case–control study Not applicable Severe acute respiratory syndrome
  1. Note: AHRD antiseptic hand rub dispenser, ICU intensive care unit, MRSA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, CD Clostridium difficile, VRE vancomycin-resistant enterococci, CLOS confirmed late onset sepsis