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Table 2 Characteristics of the participants and associations with faecal carriage of resistant bacteria

From: Carriage of ESBL/AmpC-producing or ciprofloxacin non-susceptible Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. in healthy people in Norway

Characteristics Participants (% of total) Isolates with ESBL/AmpC production alone Isolates with ciprofloxacin-non susceptibility alone Isolates with both ESBL/AmpC and ciprofloxacin non-susceptibility
   EAP
(% within group)
Non-EAP
(% within group)
p-value CNS
(% within group)
Non-CNS
(% within group)
p-value EAP + CNS
(% within group)
Non EAP + CNS
(% within group)
p-value
Gender (information missing for 8)           
Female 174 (61.3) 11 (6.3) 163 (93.6) .746 11 (6.3) 163 (93.6) .375 5 (2.9) 169 (97.1) 1.0
Male 102 (35.9) 4 (3.9) 98 (96.1)   11 (10.8) 91 (89.2)   3 (2.9) 99 (97.1)  
Age group (years; information missing for 3)           
18-29 53 (18.7) 6 (2.1) 47 (97.9) .222 3 (5.7) 50 (94.3) .944 1 (1.9) 52 (98.1) .239
30-49 108 (38.0) 4 (3.7) 104 (96.3)   8 (7.4) 100 (92.6)   1 (0.9) 107 (99.1)  
50-64 76 (26.8) 4 (5.3) 72 (94.7)   6 (7.9) 70 (92.1)   4 (5.3) 72 (94.7)  
65-84 44 (15.5) 1 (2.3) 43 (97.7)   4 (9.1) 40 (90.9)   2 (4.5) 42 (95.5)  
Geographic regions# visited last 3 months           
Not travelled /travelled within Scandinavia 194 (68.3) 9 (4.6) 185 (95.4)   11 (5.7) 183 (94.3)   4 (2.1) 190 (97.9)  
Europe (outside Scandinavia) 69 (24.3) 2 (2.9) 67 (97.1) .002 6 (8.7) 63 (91.3) .040 2 (2.9) 67 (97.1) .145
America 1 (0.4) 0 (0) 1 (100)   0 (0) 1 (100)   0 (0) 1 (100)  
Eastern Mediterranean 2 (0.7) 1 (50) 1 (50)   0 (0) 2 (100)   0 (0) 2 (100)  
South-East Asia 4 (1.4) 3 (75)** 1 (25)   1 (25) 3 (75)   1 (25) 3 (75)  
Western Pacific 2 (0.7) 0 (0) 2 (100)   1 (50) 1 (50)   0 (0) 2 (100)  
Africa 1 (0.4) 0 (0) 1 (100)   0 (0) 1 (100)   0 (0) 1 (100)  
Multiple regions 11 (3.9) 0 (0) 11 (100)   3 (27.3)* 8 (72.7)   1 (0.9) 10 (99.1)  
Geographic regions# visited last 12 months           
Not travelled /travelled within Scandinavia 101 (35.6) 5 (5.0) 96 (95.0)   8 (7.9) 93 (92.1)   1 (0.6) 100 (99.4)  
Europe (outside Scandinavia) 133 (46.8) 6 (4.5) 127 (95.5) .089 6 (4.5) 127 (95.5) .051 3 (2.3) 130 (97.7) .045
America 1 (0.4) 0 (0) 1 (100)   0 (0) 1 (100)   0 (0) 1 (100)  
Eastern Mediterranean 2 (0.7) 1 (50) 1 (50)   0 (0) 2 (100)   0 (0) 2 (100)  
South-East Asia 2 (0.7) 1 (50) 1 (50)   0 (0) 2 (100)   1 (50)* 1 (50)  
Western Pacific 1 (0.4) 0 (0) 1 (100)   1 (100) 0 (0)   0 (0) 1 (100)  
Africa 1 (0.4) 0 (0) 1 (100)   0 (0) 1 (100)   0 (0) 1 (100)  
Multiple regions 43(15.1) 2 (4.7) 41(95.3)   7 (16.3) 36 (83.7)   3 (7.0) 40 (93.0)  
Total 284 (100) 15 (5.3) 269 (94.7)   22 (7.7) 262 (92.3)   8 (2.8) 276 (97.2)  
  1. EAP = ESBL-or AmpC-producing, CNS = ciprofloxacin non-susceptible. Significant p-values are given in bold. Carriers of multiple isolates are represented one time per isolate if the isolates belong to different resistance groups, and percentage in the table may thus deviate from percentage presented in the text. E.g. both ciprofloxacin non-susceptible isolates and AmpC-producing ciprofloxacin non-susceptible isolates were recovered from two subjects, whereas both an ESBL-producing isolate and an AmpC-producing ciprofloxacin non-susceptible isolate were obtained from a third subject. Consequently, the first two subjects are represented both in the CNS and the EAP + CNS columns, while the third subject is represented both in the EAP and the EAP + CNS columns
  2. #WHO regions
  3. *Significantly different from the Not travelled/travelled within Scandinavia group, which was treated as a reference (p < 0.05)
  4. **Significantly different from the Not traveled/travelled within Scandinavia group, which was treated as a reference (p < 0.005)