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Table 1 Compliance with hand hygiene at baseline and at follow up

From: Implementation of the WHO multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy in a University Hospital in Central Ethiopia

Variable Baseline First follow up Second follow up
No of HH actions No of HH opportunities Compliance (%) No of HH actions No of HH opportunities Compliance (%) P value1 No of HH actions No of HH opportunities Compliance (%) P value1
Over all 41 2888 1.4 335 2865 11.7 <0.001 294 2244 13.1 <0.001
Professional category
 Category I 25 1470 1.7 157 1387 11.3 <0.001 73 678 10.8 <0.001
 Category II 16 1418 1.1 178 1478 12.0 <0.001 221 1566 14.1 <0.001
 Nurse 14 516 2.7 103 986 10.4 <0.001 63 461 13.7 <0.001
 Midwife 6 284 2.1 46 324 14.2 <0.001 5 61 8.2 0.029
 Medical doctor 9 285 3.2 27 275 9.8 0.002 70 306 22.9 <0.001
 Intern 7 1109 0.6 151 1205 12.5 <0.001 151 1265 11.9 <0.001
Ward
 Paediatrics 9 882 1.0 50 807 6.2 <0.001 ND ND   
 Neonatology 24 672 3.6 166 677 24.5 <0.001 ND ND   
 Gynaecology 3 651 0.5 17 664 2.6 0.002 ND ND   
 Obstetrics 5 683 0.7 102 717 14.2 <0.001 ND ND   
Indication
 b. p. c. 8 550 1.5 40 459 8.7 <0.001 10 86 11.6 <0.001
 b. a. p. 2 275 0.7 5 305 1.6 0.455 20 422 4.7 0.003
 a. b. f. e. 10 258 3.9 113 398 28.4 <0.001 5 10 50.0 <0.001
 a. p. c. 15 1208 1.2 149 923 16.1 <0.001 130 924 14.1 <0.001
 a. c. p. s. 6 597 1.0 28 780 3.6 0.002 129 804 16.0 <0.001
  1. Only the major professional categories are displayed. Therefore, the sum of opportunities for these categories does not equal the total number of opportunities. Category I: nurse/midwife/health officer/emergency surgeon/nurse, midwife, health officer student; Category II: medical doctor/intern/medical student. NOTE: HH, hand hygiene; b.p.c., before patient contact; b.a.p., before aseptic procedure; a.b.f.e., after body fluid exposure; a.p.c., after patient contact; a.c.p.s., after contact with patient surroundings; ND, no data. 1Detemined by χ 2 tests with compliance at baseline as the reference.