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Table 2 HCWs’ perception of the 5 components of the WHO multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy

From: Implementation of the WHO multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy in a University Hospital in Central Ethiopia

  Baseline Follow up P valuea
No of respondents 61 53  
 Category I 42 20  
 Category II 19 33  
Strategy Componentb
System change:
  The healthcare facility makes alcohol-based handrub available at each point of care 6 (1–7) 6 (3–7) 0.359
  Clear and simple instructions for hand hygiene are made visible for every HCW 6 (3–7) 6 (4–7) 0.138
  Each HCW is trained in hand hygiene 5 (3–7) 6 (3–7) 0.165
  HCWs regularly receive the results of their hand hygiene performance 4 (2–7) 5 (2–7) 0.969
Workplace reminders:
  Hand hygiene posters are displayed at point of care as reminders 3 (2–7) 6 (5–7) <0.001
Patient safety climate:
  Leaders at your institution support and openly promote hand hygiene 5 (2–7) 6 (4–7) 0.062
  Patients are invited to remind HCWs to perform hand hygiene 4 (1–7) 2 (1–7) 0.719
  1. Category I: nurse/midwife/health officer/emergency surgeon/nurse, midwife, health officer student; Category II: medical doctor/intern/medical student. NOTE: HCW, health-care worker; WHO, World Health Organization. HCWs were asked to respond to the listed statements following the introductory question: “In your opinion, how effective would the following actions be to increase hand hygiene permanently in your institution?” aDetermined by Wilcoxon rank-sum test. bData show median scores (IQR) on a 7-point Likert scale (with extremes labelled as “not effective” at the lower and “very effective” at the higher end)