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Table 1 Staphylococcus aureus carriage among medical students in published papers

From: Hospital clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are carried by medical students even before healthcare exposure

Year Reference Country Population SA Carriage, n (%) MRSA Carriage, n (%) Notes
Total Pre-clinical group Clinical group Total Pre-clinical group Clinical group
1994 Stubbs et al. [7] Australia N = 808 261/808 (30%) 68/193 (35%) 252/615 (40%) 0 0 0  
2004 Berthelot et al. [8] France N = 124 34/124 (27%) N/A N/A 1/124) (1%) N\A N/A  
2007 Güçlü et al. [9] Turkey N = 179 50/179 (28%) 12/179 (15%) 38/179 (76%)a N/A N/A N/A  
2007 Higuchi et al. [10] Japan N = 98 36/98 (36%) N/A N/A 0 0 0  
2007 Adesida et al. [11] Nigeria N = 182 26/182 (14%) N/A N/A 0 0 0  
2008 Baliga et al. [12] India N = 50 44/50 (88%) N/A N/A 12/50 (24%) N/A N/A  
2009 Slifka et al. [13] USA N = 182 62/182 (34%) N/A N/A 5/182 (3%) 2/95(2%) 3/87 (3%)  
2011 Ma et al. [14] China N = 2103b 212/2103 (10%) N/A N/A 22/2103 (1%) N/A N/A SCCmec I, ST88 PVL- (n = 1);
SCCmec II, ST5 PVL+ (n = 1) PVL- (n = 1);
SCCmec III, ST 239 PVL- (n = 1);
SCCmec IVa, ST88 PVL+ (n = 5), PVL-(n = 3), ST30 (n = 1), ST1, PVL+ (n = 1); SCCmec IVn,ST59 (n = 2); SCCmec IVc, ST30,PVL+ (n = 2)
SCCmec V, ST59 PVL+ (n = 2), ST90 PVL- (n = 1); non typable (n = 1)
2011 Roberts et al. [15] Canada N = 61c N/A N/A N/A 13/61 (21%) N/A N/A SCCmec IV, ST1159 (n = 1);
12 NT*,HA [ST8,ST30 (n = 3), ST39, ST45, ST101, ST109, ST256 (n = 2), ST 1474, ST1474]
2011 Chamberlain et al. [16] USA N = 132 62/132 (47%) N/A N/A 7/132 (5%) N/A N/A  
2011 Kitti et al. [17] Thailand N = 200 30/200 (15%) N/A N/A 2/200 (1%) N/A N/A SCCmec II (n = 2)
2012 Gualdoni et al. [18] Austria N = 79 20/79 (25%) N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A  
2012 Bettin et al. [19] Colombia N = 387 96/387 (25%) N/A N/A 6/387 (2%) N/A N/A SCCmec I, PVL- (n = 1); SCCmec IV, PVL+ (n = 5) CA
2012 Mahmutović Vranić et al. [20] Bosnia N = 387 39/387 (11%) N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A  
2012 Chen et al. [21] Taiwan N = 322 55/322 (17%) 24/167 (14%) 31/155 (20%) 7/322 (2%) 4/167 (2%) 3/155 (2%) SCCmec IV, ST59 (n = 2), N/A MLST (n = 4), PVL – (n = 6)CA
SCCmec VT, ST59, PVL+ (n = 1)CA
2012 Syafinaz et al. [22] Malaysia N = 209 21/209 (10%) 14/111 (13%) 7/97 (7%) 0 0 0  
2013 Bellows et al. [23] USA N = 94 15/94 (16%) 3/42 (7%) 12/52 (23%)a 3/94 (3%) 0 3/52 (6%)  
2013 Cirković et al. [24] Serbia N = 533 N/A N/A N/A 2/533 (0.4%) N/A N/A SCCmec IV, ST80CA
SCCmec V,ST152CA
2013 Trépanier et al. [25] Canada N = 497d N/A N/A N/A 1/497 (0.2%) 1/247 (0.4%) 0  
2014 Treesirichod et al. [26] Thailand N = 128 42/127 (33%) 38/128 (30%) 2nd sample 39/128 (31%)
3rd sample 50/127 (39%)a
0 0 0 3 prospective samples
2015 Zakai et al. [27] Saudi Arabia N = 182 60/182 (32%) 32/32 (100%) 28/150 (19%) 10/182 (5%) 0/32 10/150 (7%)  
2015 Collazos Marín et al. [28] Colombia N = 216 54 (25%) N/A N/A 9/216 (4%) N/A N/A 4/9 (44%)CA
2015 Ho et al. [29] China N = 1149 526/1149 (45%) N/A N/A 6/1149 (1%) N/A N/A SCCmec IV,t437 (n = 3)CA :PVL+ (n = 1)
t11642 (n = 1)CA, t1081 (n = 1)HA, t267 (n = 1)HA
2016 Baek et al. [30] South Korea N = 159c N/A N/A N/A 5/159 (3%) N/A   SCCmec IV (n = 4)
SCCmec I (n = 1)
2016 Okamo et al. [31] Tanzania N = 314 66/314 (21%) 33/166 (20%) 33/148 (22%) 1/314 (0.3%) N/A N/A  
2016 Ansari et al. [32] Nepal N = 200 30/200 (15%) N/A N/A 8/200 (4%) N/A N/A  
  1. N/A not available, CA-MRSA community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, HA-MRSA hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, SA Staphylococcus aureus, SCCmec Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec
  2. a p < 0.05
  3. bMedical interns
  4. cDental students
  5. dDivided to 250 medical residents and 247 undergrad students including interns
  6. HAsuggested by article as HA-MRSA
  7. CASuggested by article as CA-MRSA
  8. *Not SCCmec type I-V