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Table 2 Compliance and knowledge of hand hygiene in pre- and post-intervention

From: Intervening with healthcare workers’ hand hygiene compliance, knowledge, and perception in a limited-resource hospital in Indonesia: a randomized controlled trial study

Departmenta Compliance rateb P value Proportion of HCW based on Knowledge score group P value
HCW Overall % (95%CI) Pre-intervention (%) Post-intervention (%) Score Pre-intervention (%) Post-intervention (%)
PED 32.4 (28.6–36.2) 80/332 (24.1) 107/245 (43.7) <0.001 0 – 5 30/60d (50.0) 5/22 (22.7) 0.043
HR   53/80 (66.2) 70/107 (65.4) 1.000 6 – 12 30/60d (50.0) 17/22 (77.3)
HW   27/80 (33.8) 37/107 (34.6)     
Doctor   21/84 (25.0) 55/117 (47.0) 0.002 0 – 5 8/17 (47.1) 0/2 (0) 0.322
6 – 12 9/17 (52.9) 2/2 (100)
Nurse   23/105 (21.9) 45/87 (51.7) <0.001 0 – 5 13/23 (56.5) 5/18 (27.8) 0.063
6 – 12 10/23 (43.5) 13/18 (72.2)
Student   36/143 (25.2) 7/41 (17.1) 0.280c 0 – 5 8/17 (47.1) 0/2 (0) 0.322
6 – 12 9/17 (52.9) 2/2 (100)
IM 12.3 (10.0–14.6) 19/364 (5.2) 74/399 (18.5) <0.001 0 – 5 28/56 (50.0) 11/33 (33.3) 0.184
HR   11/19 (57.9) 42/74 (56.8) 1.000 6 – 12 28/56 (50.0) 22/33 (66.7)
HW   8/19 (42.1) 32/74 (43.2)     
Doctor   3/40 (7.5) 10/37 (27.0) 0.032 0 – 5 5/13 (38.5) NA NA
6 – 12 8/13 (61.5) NA
Nurse   6/180 (3.3) 55/295 (18.6) <0.001 0 – 5 11/26 (42.3) 8/24 (33.3) 0.570
6 – 12 15/26 (57.7) 16/24 (66.7)
Student   11/144 (7.6) 9/67 (13.4) 0.181 0 – 5 9/12 (75.0) 2/5 (40.0) 0.280
6 – 12 3/12 (25.0) 3/5 (60.0)
SUR 21.3 (18.3–24.3) 83/440 (18.9) 73/293 (24.9) 0.05 0 – 5 16/33e (48.5) 10/18 (55.6) 0.771
HR   69/83 (83.1) 64/73 (87.7) 0.501 6 – 12 17/33e (51.5) 8/18 (44.4)
HW   14/83 (16.9) 9/73 (12.3)     
Doctor   7/57 (12.3) 8/30 (26.7) 0.091 0 – 5
6 – 12
4/8 (50.0)
4/8 (50.0)
NA
NA
NA
Nurse   31/238 (13.0) 46/118 (39.0) <0.001 0 – 5 7/12 (58.3) 6/7 (85.7) 0.333
6 – 12 5/12 (41.7) 1/7 (14.3)
Student   45/145 (31.0) 19/145 (13.1) <0.001c 0 – 5 2/8 (25.0) 4/11 (36.4) 1.000
6 – 12 6/8 (75.0) 7/11 (63.6)
OBG 14.6 (12.0–17.2) 40/395 (10.1) 61/298 (20.5) <0.001 0 – 5 20/47f (42.6) 3/15g (20.0) 0.138
HR   32/40 (80.0) 38/61 (62.3) 0.078 6 – 12 27/47f (57.4) 12/15g (80.0)
HW   8/40 (20.0) 23/61 (37.7)     
Doctor   0/18 (0) 3/12 (25.0) 0.054 0 – 5 5/10 (50.0) NA NA
6 – 12 5/10 (50.0) NA
Nurse   24/173 (13.9) 30/157 (19.1) 0.199 0 – 5 2/12 (16.7) 1/7 (14.3) 1.000
6 – 12 10/12 (83.3) 6/7 (85.7)
Student   16/204 (7.8) 28/129 (21.7) <0.001 0 – 5 10/21 (47.6) 2/7 (28.6) 0.662
6 – 12 11/21 (52.4) 5/7 (71.4)
  1. Abbreviations: IM internal medicine, SUR surgery, OBG obstetrics-gynecology, PED pediatrics, HCW healthcare workers, HR handrubbing, HW handwashing, NA not available
  2. aDepartments of Pediatrics, Surgery and Internal Medicine with intervention, Department of Obstetrics-gynecology without intervention; bthe percentage of correct hand hygiene actions undertaken on moments when hand hygiene was considered necessary according to the WHO “five moments”; cSignificantly worse instead of significantly better; d3 HCWs did not mention the profession in the questionnaire; e5 HCWs did not mention the profession in the questionnaire; f4 HCWs did not mention the profession in the questionnaire; g1 HCW did not mention the profession in the questionnaire; score range 0-5 = 0-42% correct; score range 6-12 = 50%-100% correct