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Table 4 Compliance to the five different WHO moments of hand hygiene pre-intervention and post intervention

From: Intervening with healthcare workers’ hand hygiene compliance, knowledge, and perception in a limited-resource hospital in Indonesia: a randomized controlled trial study

WHO moment Total (%) Compliance (%) P value
Pre-intervention Post-intervention
1: Before 86/438 (19.6) 57/267 (21.3) 29/171 (17.0) 0.259
 Pediatrics   30/89 (33.7) 9/39 (23.1) 0.298
 Internal medicine   6/64 (9.4) 7/87 (8.0) 0.774
 Surgery   7/67 (10.4) 11/22 (50.0) <0.001
 Obstetrics-gynecology   14/47 (29.8) 2/23 (8.7) 0.069
2: Before 16/123 (13.0) 7/87 (8.0) 9/36 (25.0) 0.017
 Pediatrics   4/20 (20.0) 4/8 (50.0) 0.172
 Internal medicine   0/31 (0) 2/14 (14.3) 0.092
 Surgery   2/20 (10.0) 2/4 (50.0) 0.115
 Obstetrics-gynecology   1/16 (6.3) 1/10 (10.0) 1.000
3: After 3/12 (25.0) 2/9 (22.2) 1/3 (33.3) 1.000
 Pediatrics   0/4 (0) 1/1 (100) 0.200
 Internal medicine   0/1 (0) 0/0 (0) NA
 Surgery   1/3 (33.3) 0/0 (0) NA
 Obstetrics-gynecology   1/1 (100) 0/2 (0) 0.333
4: After 299/1093 (27.4) 112/544 (20.6) 187/549 (34.1) <0.001
 Pediatrics   40/133 (30.1) 79/119 (66.4) <0.001
 Internal medicine   12/96 (12.5) 38/139 (27.3) 0.006
 Surgery   42/178 (23.6) 42/180 (23.3) 0.953
 Obstetrics-gynecology   18/137 (13.1) 28/78 (35.9) <0.001
5: After 134/1100 (12.2) 45/624 (7.2) 89/476 (18.7) <0.001
 Pediatrics   6/86 (7.0) 14/45 (31.1) <0.001
 Internal medicine   2/172 (1.2) 27/159 (17.0) <0.001
 Surgery   31/172 (18.0) 18/87 (20.7) 0.605
 Obstetrics-gynecology   6/194 (3.1) 30/185 (16.2) <0.001
  1. Abbreviations: WHO World Health Organization
  2. 1 = before touching a patient; 2 = before a procedure; 3 = after a procedure or body fluid exposure risk; 4 = after touching a patient; 5 = after touching a patient’s surroundings