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Table 6 Perception associated with HAIs and hand hygiene adherence among HCW between departments

From: Intervening with healthcare workers’ hand hygiene compliance, knowledge, and perception in a limited-resource hospital in Indonesia: a randomized controlled trial study

Perception No. of HCW (%)
Departments with intervention P value Department without intervention P value
Pre (n = 149) Post (n = 73) Pre (n = 47) Post (n = 15)
Formal training on HH within 3 yearsa 107 (71.8) 51 (70.8) 0.875 30 (63.8) 13 (86.7) 0.118
Intention to adhere to HHa 137 (91.9) 70 (95.9) 0.396 45 (95.7) 15 (100.0) 1.000
The impact of a HAIs on a patient’s clinical outcomeb 115 (77.2) 64 (87.7) 0.119 41 (87.2) 14 (93.3) 0.759
Effectiveness of HH in preventing HAIsb 140 (94.0) 65 (89.0) 0.220 41 (87.2) 12 (80.0) 0.674
Importance of HH in the ward among all patient safety issuesb 136 (91.3) 63 (86.3) 0.480 40 (85.1) 14 (93.3) 0.676
Performing HH as WHO recommended methodb 126 (84.6) 62 (84.9) 0.944 45 (95.7) 13 (86.7) 0.244
Importance that the head of department attach to the HH behaviorb 121 (81.2) 61 (83.6) 0.292 41 (87.2) 13 (86.7) 1.000
Importance that the colleagues attach to the HH behaviorb 103 (69.1) 56 (76.7) 0.147 37 (78.7) 13 (86.7) 0.713
Importance that the patients attach to the HH behaviorb 109 (73.2) 49 (67.1) 0.557 37 (78.7) 12 (80.0) 1.000
Effort to perform HH as WHO recommended methodb 135 (90.6) 68 (93.2) 0.768 42 (89.4) 14 (93.3) 0.824
Reasons for HCW not to perform HH on a moment that it is expecteda:
 a) Too much time 12 (8.2) 2 (2.8) 0.151 3 (6.5) 0 1.000
 b) Not enough facilities 27 (19.0) 15 (21.1) 0.718 6 (13.6) 2 (13.3) 1.000
 c) Skin dry or irritated 26 (18.6) 16 (22.5) 0.584 10 (21.7) 2 (14.3) 0.713
 d) Hand-alcohol is not effective for hand hygiene 26 (18.2) 12 (16.9) 1.000 6 (13.3) 1 (6.7) 0.668
 e) Strong smell of hand-alcohol 14 (10.1) 16 (22.9) 0.021 7 (15.2) 1 (7.1) 0.667
 f) The hand-alcohol substance is not convenient (sticky) 25 (17.9) 13 (19.4) 0.848 7 (15.9) 5 (33.3) 0.263
 g) The hand becomes sweaty 27 (19.6) 9 (13.4) 0.331 7 (15.9) 0 0.178
 h) Feeling dirty hand after using hand-alcohol 11 (8.1) 4 (6.0) 0.777 6 (14.0) 1 (7.1) 0.669
Hand hygiene procedure as WHO guidelinea:
 a) Information about five moments for HH is known well 129 (86.6) 67 (91.8) 0.369 45 (95.7) 15 (100.0) 1.000
 b) Information about six steps of HH is known well 146 (98.0) 68 (93.2) 0.134 46 (97.9) 15 (100.0) 1.000
 c) Know when to apply HH 143 (96.0) 69 (94.5) 0.838 46 (97.0) 15 (100.0) 1.000
 d) Know how to apply HH 147 (98.7) 72 (98.6) 0.221 47 (100.0) 15 (100.0) -
 e) Enough reminders in the ward 121 (81.2) 59 (80.8) 0.998 43 (91.5) 13 (86.7) 0.626
Perception %
(95% CI)
Departments with intervention P Department without intervention P
Pre Post   Pre Post  
Average percentage of hospitalized patients who will develop a HAIs 49.7 (44.9–54.5) 58.6 (52.8–64.4) 0.026 57.7 (51.6–63.8) 64.0 (51.3–76.7) 0.320
Average percentage of situations HCW perform HH when required 69.3 (65.2–73.3) 68.1 (63.4–72.8) 0.736 75.3 (70.0–80.6) 76.3 (62.8–89.9) 0.860
Percentage of situations requiring HH do the HCW actually perform HH, either by handrubbing or handwashing (self-reporting) 85.5 (82.6–88.4) 75.1 (70.5–79.7) <0.001 81.8 (76.8–86.7) 85.3 (78.8–91.8) 0.425
  1. Abbreviations: HAIs healthcare-associated infections, HH hand hygiene, HCW healthcare workers
  2. a“yes” response; bhigh/very high response