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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of candidemia episodes

From: Candidemia in a major regional tertiary referral hospital – epidemiology, practice patterns and outcomes

  All C. glabrata C. tropicalis C. albicans C. parapsilosis p
n = 261 n = 75 (28.6%) n = 71 (27.1%) n = 59 (22.6%) n = 33 (12.6%)
Demographics
Male sex 138 (52.9) 37 (49.3) 39 (54.9) 32 (54.2) 22 (66.7) 0.42
Median age (range) 65 (22–101) 67 (24–95) 63 (28–90) 68 (27–101) 61 (28–86) 0.06
Ward type       0.83
 Medical ward 110 (42.1) 30 (40.0) 35 (49.3) 23 (39.0) 14 (42.4)  
 Surgical ward 51 (19.5) 16 (21.3) 10 (14.1) 14 (23.7) 7 (21.2)  
 ICU 100 (38.3) 29 (38.7) 26 (36.6) 22 (37.3) 12 (36.4)  
Elective admission 27 (10.3) 12 (16.0) 5 (7.0) 5 (8.5) 4 (12.1) 0.32
Comorbidities
Malignancies 106 (40.6) 34 (45.3) 29 (40.8) 23 (39.0) 12 (36.4) 0.81
 Haematological 27 (10.3) 3 (4.0) 13 (18.3) 6 (10.2) 2 (6.1) 0.03
 Oncological 84 (32.2) 32 (42.7) 17 (23.9) 18 (30.5) 11 (33.3) 0.11
 With metastases 36 (13.8) 16 (21.3) 11 (15.5) 6 (10.2) 3 (9.1) 0.23
Diabetes 103 (39.5) 31 (41.3) 25 (35.2) 23 (39.0) 12 (36.4) 0.89
Chronic renal failure 67 (25.7) 17 (22.7) 22 (31.0) 14 (23.7) 8 (24.2) 0.67
Hepatobiliary disorders 58 (22.2) 17 (22.7) 20 (28.2) 8 (13.6) 8 (24.2) 0.25
Myocardial infarction 43 (16.5) 10 (13.3) 13 (18.3) 15 (25.4) 1 (3.0) 0.04
Cerebrovascular disease 29 (11.1) 12 (16.0) 8 (11.3) 4 (6.8) 4 (12.1) 0.44
Median (range) Charlson score 5 (0–15) 6 (0–15) 5 (0–14) 4 (0–12) 4 (0–9) 0.08
Risk factors
Central venous catheter 192 (73.6) 47 (62.7) 55 (77.5) 46 (78.0) 26 (78.8) 0.11
Drain 60 (23.0) 22 (29.3) 14 (19.7) 16 (27.1) 6 (18.2) 0.43
Mechanical ventilation 111 (42.5) 26 (34.7) 31 (43.7) 25 (42.4) 16 (48.5) 0.52
Total parenteral nutrition 52 (19.9) 12 (16.0) 13 (18.3) 12 (20.3) 10 (30.3) 0.37
Surgery 170 (65.1) 51 (68.0) 44 (66.0) 39 (66.1) 20 (60.6) 0.83
 Gastrointestinal surgery 41 (15.7) 18 (24.0) 5 (7.0) 9 (24.3) 5 (15.2) 0.05
Renal replacement therapy 85 (32.6) 16 (21.3) 28 (39.4) 21 (35.6) 12 (36.4) 0.10
Antimicrobial therapy 236 (90.4) 67 (89.3) 68 (95.8) 53 (89.8) 27 (81.8) 0.15
Antifungal therapy 51 (19.5) 13 (17.3) 15 (21.1) 8 (13.6) 11 (33.3) 0.13
 Azole 24 (9.2) 5 (6.7) 10 (14.1) 6 (10.2) 2 (6.1) 0.41
 Echinocandin 30 (11.5) 8 (10.7) 6 (8.5) 2 (3.4) 10 (30.3) 0.001
Immunosuppressive therapy 76 (29.1) 17 (22.7) 28 (39.4) 16 (27.1) 10 (30.3) 0.16
Neutropenia 21 (8.0) 3 (4.0) 13 (18.3) 2 (3.4) 2 (6.1) 0.004
Therapy
Primary therapy       0.15
 Echinocandin 165 (73.3) 45 (76.3) 49 (81.7) 32 (60.4) 22 (71.0)  
 Azole 52 (23.1) 12 (20.3) 11 (18.3) 17 (32.0) 8 (25.8)  
 Others 8 (3.1) 2 (3.3) 1 (1.7) 4 (6.8) 1 (3.2)  
 None 36 (13.8) 16 (21.3) 10 (14.1) 6 (10.2) 2 (6.1)  
Median (range) time to primary therapy, days 1 (0–9) 2 (0–7) 1 (0–3) 2 (0–5) 1 (0–9) 0.01
Median (range) duration of therapy, days 15 (1–140) 16 (2–61) 11 (1–96) 16 (1–140) 15 (2–47) 0.01
Infection Characteristics & Outcomes
Median (range) time to positive culture, days 12 (0–282) 11 (0–282) 14 (0–123) 14 (0–79) 37 (0–104) 0.37
Median (range) time to reporting positive culture, days 2 (0–10) 3 (0–9) 1 (0–10) 2 (1–5) 2(1–3) <0.001
Median (range) time to species identification, days 5 (2–22) 6 (2–12) 4 (2–12) 5 (2–9) 5 (3–7) <0.001
Median (range) SAPS II score 49 (14–103) 48 (18–95) 55 (18–93) 48 (23–103) 44 (14–72) 0.01
Median (range) Pitts' bacteraemia score 3 (0–14) 2 (0–11) 3 (0–12) 3 (0–11) 2 (0–8) 0.86
Severe sepsis at time of culture 151 (57.9) 49 (65.3) 43 (60.6) 33 (55.9) 13 (58.0) 0.08
ICU stay 131 (50.2) 36 (48.0) 35 (49.3) 30 (50.8) 16 (48.5) 0.99
Concurrent infection 127 (48.7) 33 (44.0) 36 (57.0) 30 (50.8) 16 (48.5) 0.83
Candida colonization/infection at other sites 118 (45.2) 41 (54.7) 39 (54.9) 34 (57.6) 18 (54.5) 0.99
30-day in-hospital all-cause mortality 130 (49.8) 38 (50.7) 42 (59.2) 28 (47.5) 9 (27.3) 0.03
  1. All variables are denoted as number of patients with the characteristic or belonging to the category [n (%)], unless otherwise stated
  2. Sub-group analyses are shown only for episodes involving major Candida spp. and not for mixed candidemia and less common species
  3. Comorbidities < 10% in occurrence are not reflected
  4. Significant variables are reflected in bold and italics