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Table 1 Study characteristics

From: How externalities impact an evaluation of strategies to prevent antimicrobial resistance in health care organizations

Author Year Study type Outcome measured Results ($US 2016)
Phelps [20] 1989 Economic model Costs and benefits associated with antimicrobial use in the United States Unrecognized social cost annually in the US ranging from $145 million to $14.5 billion
Rudholm [21] 2002 Economic Models Antimicrobial resistance at global level and to design a tax/subsidy system No empirical analysis used to simulate models
Elbasha [19] 2003 Economic model Excess burden to society from extra courses of amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanate use, based on Phelps model Excess burden associated with 40 million prescriptions was $345 million
Smith et al. [17] 2006 Economic model Evaluating regulation, taxation, tradeable permits on reducing antimicrobial use and level of MRSA Taxation least effective, free tradeable permit most effective
Kaier and Frank [18] 2010 Economic model Cost of resistance and of antimicrobial consumption (negative externalities) and use of alcohol based hand rub for hand disinfection (positive externality) on the incidence of hospital-acquired MRSA Negative externality associated with 2nd generation cephalosporins, 3rd generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and lincosamines ranged $6–17 per DDD
Kaier and Volkswirt [5] 2012 Economic model Cost of resistance and of antimicrobial consumption (negative externalities) and use of alcohol based hand rub for hand disinfection (positive externality) on the incidence of hospital-acquired MRSA, CDAD, ESBL Negative externality associated with 3rd gen cephalosporins ($159 per DDD) and fluoroquinolones ($112 per DDD).
Smith & Coast [22] 1998 Description Conceptual and practical issues of tradeable permits Identified 7 factors to consider
Coast et al. [13] 1998 Description Resistance as an externality and policy options (e.g. regulation, taxation, tradeable permits) for dealing with antimicrobial resistance Strengths and limitations of policy options
  1. MRSA Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, CDAD Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, ESBL extended spectrum beta-lactamase, DDD defined daily dose