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Table 6 Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis of factors associated with non-prescribed antimicrobial use among customers in drug retailer outlets in Central Zone, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2016

From: Non-prescribed antimicrobial use and associated factors among customers in drug retail outlet in Central Zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics Use of Antimicrobial drug(s) COR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Prescribed, n (%) Non-prescribed, n (%)
Sex
 Male 224 (54.2) 249 (67.8) 1.78 (1.33, 2.39)b 1.72 (1.21, 2.44)b
 Female 189 (45.8) 118 (32.2) 1  
Age group (years)
 18–27 131 (31.7) 149 (40.6) 1  
 28–37 139 (33.7) 101 (27.5) 0.64 (0.45, 0.90)b  
 38–47 73 (17.7) 53 (14.4) 0.64 (0.42, 0.98)b  
 48–57 37 (9) 29 (7.9) 0.69 (0.40, 1.18)a  
 ≥ 58 33 (8) 35 (9.5) 0.93 (0.55, 1.59)  
Residence
 Urban 329 (79.7) 266 (72.5) 1  
 Rural 84 (20.3) 101 (27.5) 1.49 (1.07, 2.07)b  
Marital status
 Married 288 (69.7) 228 (62.1) 1  
 Unmarried 104 (25.2) 119 (32.4) 1.45 (1.05, 1.98)b  
 Divorced/Widowed 21 (5.1) 20 (5.4) 1.20 (0.64, 2.27)  
Monthly income (US Dollar)
 < 6.51 54 (13.1) 76 (20.7) 1.67 (1.13, 2.48)b  
 6.52–19.48 51 (12.3) 41 (11.2) 0.96 (0.61, 1.50)  
 19.49–32.50 49 (11.9) 32 (8.7) 0.78 (0.48, 1.26)  
 ≥ 32.51 259 (62.7) 218 (59.4) 1  
Group of Illness
 Systemic Infection 320 (77.5) 272 (74.1) 1  
 Topical Infection 50 (12.1) 40 (10.9) 0.94 (0.60, 1.47)  
 Eye/Ear Infection 43 (10.4) 55 (15) 1.51 (0.98, 2.31)a  
Receiving modern health care services
 Public health facilities 184 (49.3) 176 (53.8) 1 1
 Private pharmacies/drug stores 160 (42.9) 135 (41.3) 0.88 (0.65, 1.20) -
 Others (Private clinic, NGO) 29 (7.8) 16 (4.9) 0.58 (0.30, 1.09)a 0.47 (0.23, 0.98)
Distance of health facility from home
 Within 5 km radius 362 (87.7) 305 (83.1) 1  
 Far from 5 km radius 51 (12.3) 62 (16.9) 1.44 (0.97, 2.15)a  
Self perceived of waiting time in health care facilities
 Fast 119 (28.8) 67 (18.3) 1 1
 Moderate 202 (48.9) 183 (49.9) 2.26 (1.51, 3.39)b 1.92 (1.20, 3.09)b
 Delay 92 (22.3) 117 (31.9) 1.61 (1.12, 2.31)b 1.56 (1.03, 2.38)
Ever received antimicrobials
 No 129 (31.2) 87 (23.7) 1 1
 Yes 284 (68.8) 280 (76.3) 1.46 (1.06, 2.01)b 3.51 (2.45, 5.02)b
Ever received non-prescription antimicrobials
 No 291 (70.5) 146 (39.8) 1  
 Yes 122 (29.5) 221 (60.2) 3.61 (2.68, 4.86)b  
In the past 6 months, how often non- prescription anti-microbial purchased
 None 145 (35.1) 82 (22.3) 1 1
 1–3 121 (29.3) 169 (46) 2.47 (1.73, 3.53)b 2.04 (1.36, 3.06)b
  ≥ 4 147 (35.6) 116 (31.6) 1.39 (0.97, 2.01)a 2.66 (1.24, 5.68)
  1. Bivariable bat α < 0.05, aat α < 0.20 and multi variable bsignificant at < 0.01, US Dollar = United State Dollar