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Table 5 Antimicrobial resistance parameters of E. coli isolates from pigs on the small- and medium-scale farms

From: Antimicrobial use and antimicrobial susceptibility in Escherichia coli on small- and medium-scale pig farms in north-eastern Thailand

Antimicrobial Resistant isolates % (n) P-value OR (95% CI)a
Small-scale (n = 69) Medium-scale (n = 81)
Ciprofloxacin 41 (28) 48 (39) 0.54  
Nalidixic acid 20 (14) 31 (25) 0.21  
Gentamicin 11 (8) 7 (6) 0.39  
Streptomycin 38 (26) 77 (62) <0.001 5.4 (2.7-11)
Tetracycline 75 (52) 86 (70) 0.09 2.1 (0.9-4.8)
Florfenicol 14 (10) 2 (2) 0.01 0.1 (0.03-0.7)
Chloramphenicol 39 (27) 58 (47) 0.02 2.2 (1.1-4.1)
Colistin 0 (0) 0 (0) - -
Sulfamethoxazole 61 (42) 84 (68) 0.002 3.4 (1.6-7.2)
Trimethoprim 42 (29) 70 (57) <0.001 3.3 (1.7-6.4)
Ampicillin 70 (48) 85 (69) 0.02 2.5 (1.1-5.6)
Cefotaxime 1 (1) 1 (1) 0.9  
Ceftazidime 4 (3) 4 (3) 0.8  
Multidrug-resistanceb 74 (51) 89 (72) 0.002 3.7 (1.2-8.8)
  1. Antimicrobial classified as critically important for human medicine according to WHO [22]
  2. aFor the OR estimates, the small-scale farms were used as reference variable and GEE models were used to account for clustering of isolates within farms
  3. bMultidrug-resistance defined as an isolate resistant against at least three different categories of the antimicrobial agents tested