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Table 3 Univariate analysis of risk factors for CRKp BSI

From: Clinical and molecular characteristics, risk factors and outcomes of Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit

Variable CSKp (n = 17) CRKp (n = 31) Univariate analysis
Adjusted OR 95% CI P-value
Sex (male, n) 11(65%) 27(87%) 0.611 0.144—2.596 0.502
Age (y) (mean ± SD) 62.71 ± 16.34 57.61 ± 14.78    0.306
Co- morbidities
 Diabetes mellitus 5 (29%) 9 (29%) 0.982 0.268—3.602 0.978
 Hypertension 9 (53%) 15 (48%) 0.833 0.255—2.724 0.763
 Coronary heart disease 1 (6%) 3 (10%) 1.714 0.164—17.886 1
 Chronic liver disease 3(18%) 6(19%) 1.120 0.242–5.186 1
 Chronic renal failure 2 (12%) 4 (13%) 1.111 0.182—6.796 0.909
 Solid organ tumor 4 (24%) 7 (23%) 0.948 0.233—3.850 0.940
 HIV 0 0 NA NA NA
 Surgery in the past medical historya 3 (18%) 5 (16%) 0.897 0.186—4.322 0.893
 Prior healthcare-associated exposure 7 (41%) 9 (29%) 0.584 0.169—2.017 0.393
Prior medicine exposure
 Glucocorticoid 7 (41%) 13 (42%) 1.032 0.311—3.428 0.959
 Immunosuppressorb 1 (6%) 2 (6%) 1.103 0.093—13.135 1
Prior use of antimicrobials
 Penicillin 3 (18%) 10 (32%) 2.105 0.480—9.237 0.318
 Second cephalosporin 1 (6%) 4 (13%) 2.240 0.228—22.051 0.838
 extended-spectrum cephalosporins 7 (41%) 15 (48%) 1.224 0.351—4.269 0.750
 Aminoglycosides 1 (6%) 3 (10%) 1.615 0.153—17.016 1
 Quinolones 1 (6%) 3 (10%) 1.615 0.153—17.016 1
 Tigecycline 0 4 (13%) 0.625 0.492—0.795 0.613
 Imipenem 1 (6%) 11(39%) 8.556 0.984—74.408 0.064
 Meropenem 1 (6%) 12 (39%) 9.882 1.141—85.619 0.068
Ertapenem 0 0 NA NA NA
 Linezolid 1 (6%) 12 (39%) 9.882 1.141—85.619 0.068
 Glycopeptides Vancomycin 1 (6%) 8 (26%) 5.333 0.599—47.468 0.216
 Teicoplanin 1 (6%) 5 (16%) 2.917 0.309—27.560 0.333
Invasive procedure before
 Central venous catheterization 10(59%) 30 (97%) 21.000 2.294—192.225 0.003
 Trachea cannula 4(24%) 10 (32%) 1.548 0.401—5.971 0.525
 Tracheotomy 5(29%) 12 (39%) 1.516 0.426—5.393 0.519
 Urinary catheter 7(41%) 23 (74%) 4.107 1.168—14.436 0.024
 stomach tube 14(82%) 27 (87%) 1.446 0.283—7.384 0.656
 Intrathoracic drain 0(0) 4 (13%) 0.614 0.485—0.776 0.282
 Abdominal cavity drainage-tube 5(29%) 15 (48%) 2.250 0.639—7.923 0.202
 External ventricular drainage tube care 0(0) 1 (3%) 0.612 0.490—0.765 1
 Liver function on admission 5(35%) 3 (10%) 0.257 0.053—1.252 0.079
 Renal function on admission 7(41%) 4(13%) 0.275 0.071—1.070 0.055
 APACHE II score on admission 12.29 ± 7.32 9.45 ± 4.60    0.334
  1. Abbreviations: CSKp carbapenem-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae, CRKp carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation
  2. aHistory of surgery and non-invasive procedures, such as endoscopy or colonoscopy, are excluded from this category
  3. bImmunosuppressors: Immunosuppressive drugs, immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system, including cytostatics, antibodies, drugs acting on immunophilins, etc. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immunosuppressive_drug)