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Table 1 Hand hygiene compliance of HCWs in Debre Berhan Referral Hospital, May 2017

From: A twenty-four-hour observational study of hand hygiene compliance among health-care workers in Debre Berhan referral hospital, Ethiopia

Characteristic Hand hygiene opportunities (n) Hand hygiene actions (na) Compliance, % (95% CI)
Over all 917 202 22.0 (19.4–24.9)
Professional category
 Doctor 286 59 20.6 (16.2–25.9)
 Nurse 476 109 22.9 (19.2–27.0)
 Midwife 99 21 21.2 (13.9–30.8)
 Other HCWs 56 13 23.2 (13.4–36.7)
Ward
 Medical 207 44 21.2 (16.0–27.6)
 Surgical 203 38 18.7 (13.7–24.9)
 Paediatric 211 56 26.5 (20.8–33.1)
 OB/GYN 219 43 19.6 (14.7–25.7)
 NICU 77 21 27.3 (18.0–38.8)
Shift
 Morning 369 86 23.3 (19.2–28.0)
 After noon 318 74 23.3 (18.8–28.4)
 Night 230 52 22.6 (17.5–28.4)
Indications
 bef. Pat 255 6 2.4 (0.9–5.3)
 bef. Asept 195 7 3.6 (1.6–7.6)
 aft.b.f 149 113 75.8 (68.0–82.3)
 aft.pat 166 71 42.8 (35.2–50.7)
 aft.p.surr 152 5 3.3 (1.2–7.9)
  1. bef. Pat before patient contact, bef. Asept before an aseptic procedure, aft.b.f after body fluid exposure, aft.pat after patient contact, aft.p.surr after contact with patient surroundings, HCWs Health care workers, n Number of opportunities for hand hygiene, n a Number of positive hand hygiene actions, CI Confidence interval, Other HCWs, Laboratory technician, dentist and physiotherapist, NICU Neonatal intensive care unit, OB/GYN, Obstetrics and gynecology