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Table 2 Socio-demographic characteristics of study participants in Ambo Hospital, Ambo and Awaro health centers (n = 300)

From: Urinary pathogenic bacterial profile, antibiogram of isolates and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Ambo town, Central Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

Socio-demographic variables Bacterial Culture (%) Total X2 p-value
Positive = 56 (18.7) Negative = 244 (81.3)
Age in years
 15–24 27 (18) 126 (82) 153 1.359 0.51
 25–34 25 (19) 109 (81) 134   
 35–44 4 (31) 9 (69) 13   
Gestation stage
 Second trimester 23 (16) 120 (84) 143 1.201 0.27
 Third trimester 33 (21) 124 (79) 157   
Pregnancy Category
Primiparous 25 (18) 113 (82) 138 0.051 0.82
 Multiparous 31 (19) 131 (81) 162   
Employment
 Employed 17 (17) 86 (83) 103 0.483 0.49
 Unemployed 39 (20) 158 (80) 197   
Residency
 Urban 37 (17) 187 (83) 224 5.096 0.08
 Rural 10 (20) 40 (80) 50   
Periurban 9 (35) 17 (65) 26   
Education
 Illiterate 10 (20) 41 (80) 51 0.170 0.98
 Primary school 20 (19) 85 (81) 105   
 Secondary school 13 (19) 55 (81) 68   
 University 13 (17) 63 (83) 76   
Income/month
<500 32 (19) 85 (81) 117 14.079 0.007
 501–1000 18 (25) 77 (75) 95   
 1001–1500 3 (8) 36 (92) 39   
 1501–2000 1 (9) 22 (91) 23   
>2001 2 (15) 24 (85) 26   
Eat raw meat
 Yes 28 (24) 87 (76) 115 3.965 0.046
 No 28 (15) 157 (85) 185   
Drink raw milk
 Yes 14 (18) 63 (82) 77 0.016 0.90
 No 42 (19) 181 (81) 223   
Eat raw vegetable
 Yes 19 (24) 61 (76) 80 1.857 0.17
 No 37 (17) 183 (83) 220   
Water source
 Others 2 (9) 20 (91) 22 3.418 0.18
 Spring water 6 (32) 13 (68) 19   
 Tap water 48 (19) 211(81) 259   
UTI history
 Yes 18 (27) 48 (73) 66 4.128 0.04
 No 38 (16) 196 (84) 234