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Table 2 Risk of HAI in relation to age, sex, underlying disease and healthcare risk factors among patients with surgical care and without

From: Healthcare associated infection and its risk factors among patients admitted to a tertiary hospital in Ethiopia: longitudinal study

Variable Surgical care (n = 450) Non-surgical care (n = 470)
  HAI (%/)*** Total RR (95% CI) ARR(95% CI) HAI (%) Total RR(95%CI) ARR(95% CI)
Age in years
  < 18 20(33.33) 60    20(27.40) 73   
 18–30 28(13.53) 207 0.41(0.25,0.67)* 0.54(0.32,0.93)* 19(15,45) 123 0.56(0.32,0.98) 0.61(0.34,1.07
 31–45 25(22.94) 109 0.69(0.42,1.13) 0.94(0.56,1.55) 27(18.24) 148 0.67(0.40,1.10) 0.54(0.31,0.93)
  > 45 26(35.14) 74 1.05(0.66,1.69) 1.07(0.66,1.46) 7(5.56) 126 0.20(0.09,0.46 0.22(0.10,0.48)
Gender
 Male 52(30.95) 168 1.85 (1.32,2.62)* 1.44(0.97,2.14) 32(13.79) 232 0.80, (0.52,1.22) 0.97(0.64,1.49)
 Female 47(16.67) 282    41(17.23) 238   
Previous hospitalization###
 Yes 20(44.44) 45 2.28(1.56,3.34)* 1.65(1.07,2.54) 6(23.08) 26 1.53(0.73,3.19)  
 No 79(19.51) 405    67(15.09) 444   
Type of surgery      NA    
 Elective 60(27.03) 222 1.58 (1.10, 2.26)* 0.98(0.65,1.46)     
 Emergency 39(17.11) 228       
Type of wound #      NA    
 Contaminated/ dirty 13(23.64) 55 1.30(0.77,2.22) 0.81(0.47,1.42)     
 Clean contaminated 28(35.90) 78 1.98(1.35,2.89)* 1.28(0.85,1.94)     
 Clean 56 (18.12) 309       
Recent endotracheal intubation
 Yes 24(19.83) 121 0.87(0.58,1.31)   2(40) 5 2.62(0.87,7.82)  
 No 75(22.80) 329    71(15.27) 465   
Chest tube
 Yes 2(16.67) 12 0.75(0.21,2.70)   3(75.00) 4 5.05(2.75,9.26)* 4.14(2.30,7.46)
 No 97(22.15) 438    69(14.84) 465   
Mechanical ventilator
 Yes 3(37.50) 8 1.72(0.69,4.29)   12(35.29) 34 2.52(1.51,4.20)* 1.99(1.06,3.74)
 No 96(21.72) 442    61(13.99) 436   
Indwelling urinary catheter
 Yes 48(19.12) 251 0.74(0.53,1.05)   17(28.33) 60 2.07(1.29,3.32)* 1.28(0.76,2.14)
 No 51(25.63) 199    56(13.66) 410   
IV line
 Yes 80(21.45) 373 0.87(0.56,1.34)   30(20.13) 149 1.50(0.98,2.29)  
 No 19(24.68) 77    43(13.40) 321   
Naso-gastric tube
 Yes 3(9.68) 31 0.42(0.14,1.25)   5(25.00) 20 1.67(0.76,3.69)  
 No 96(22.91) 419    67(14.32) 449   
Preoperative prophylaxis#      NA    
 Given 88(22.11) 398 0.98(0.56,1.71)      
 Not given 11(22.45) 49       
Underlying disease
 Yes 9(13.85) 65 0.59(0.31,1.11)   44(24.58) 179 2.54(1.64,3.93)* 2.01(1.33,3.04)
 No 90(23.38) 385    28(9.66) 290   
  1. *** Percentage was calculated from row total, RR relative risk, ARR Adjusted relative risk, CI – confidence interval, * Statistically significant # please note missing participant, ### participants who had history of hospital admission in the past five years