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Table 1 Demographic and clinical details of LTCF residents from three Italian Provinces

From: Colonization of long-term care facility residents in three Italian Provinces by multidrug-resistant bacteria

  Milan (M), % (n = 104) Piacenza (P), % (n = 121) Bolzano (B), % (n = 115) Significant differences (p-value)
Male sex 30.7 26.4 43.4 M vs. B (0.05); P vs. B (0.006)
Age ≥ 86 years 58.7 60.3 35.6 M vs. B (< 0.001); P vs. B (< 0.001)
Antibiotics in preceding 3 months 24.0 50.4 23.4 M vs. P (< 0.001); P vs. B (< 0.001)
 Fluoroquinolones 8.6 7.4 5.2  
 Penicillins 2.8 1.6 12.1 M vs. B (0.01); P vs. B (0.001)
 Cephalosporins 5.7 24.8 1.7 M vs. P (< 0.001); P vs. B (< 0.001)
Dementia 42.3 79.3 68.7 M vs. P (< 0.001); M vs. B (< 0.001)
Peripheral vascular disease 59.6 47.1 71.3 P vs. B (< 0.001)
Urinary incontinence 74.0 84.3 85.2 M vs. P (0.05); M vs. B (0.04)
Diabetes 19.2 16.5 20.8  
Cancer 8.6 8.2 9.5  
Decubitus ulcer 6.7 5.7 11.3  
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 11.5 9.1 18.2 P vs. B (0.04)
Physical disability (Barthel immobility score of 0) 10.4 41.3 67.8 M vs. P (< 0.001); M vs. B (< 0.001); P vs. B (< 0.001)
Coma 0.0 0.0 17.4 M vs. B (< 0.001); P vs. B (< 0.001)
Any medical device 10.5 23.9 38.2 M vs. P (0.009); M vs. B (< 0.001); P vs. B (0.01)
 Percutaneous enteral gastrostomy tube 2.8 11.5 20.8 M vs. P (0.01); M vs. B (< 0.001); P vs. B (0.05)
 Tracheostomy tube 0.0 1.6 9.5 M vs. B (0.001); P vs. B (0.007)
 Urinary catheter 8.6 6.6 18.2 M vs. B (0.04); P vs. B (0.006)
 Nasogastric tube 0.0 9.1 1.7 M vs. P (0.001); P vs. B (0.01)
Length of stay in LTCF < 6 months 17.7 8.2 17.3 M vs. P (0.03); P vs. B (0.03)
Hospital admission in previous 12 months, any department 22.3 15.8 38.2 M vs. B (0.01); M vs. P (< 0.001)
P vs. B (< 0.001)
 Geriatrics 0.0 1.6 9.5 M vs. B (p = 0.001); P vs. B (p = 0.007)
 Medicine 4.8 5.7 6.0  
 Orthopedics 3.8 3.3 4.3  
Infection 3.8a 5.7b 0.8c P vs. B (0.03)
  1. aUrinary tract infection - UTI (2), respiratory tract infection - RTI (1), infected prosthesis (1)
  2. bRTI (6), UTI (1), skin and soft tissue infection (1)
  3. cUTI (1)