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Table 3 Resident’s risk factors for ESβL and MRSA colonization (cumulative data: Milan, Piacenza, Bolzano)

From: Colonization of long-term care facility residents in three Italian Provinces by multidrug-resistant bacteria

    Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis    Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
  ESBL, % (n = 203) No ESBL, % (n = 137) OR (CI 95%) p OR (CI 95%) p MRSA, % (n = 45) No MRSA, % (n = 295) OR (CI 95%) p OR (CI 95%) p
Male sex 34.9 31.3 1.17 (0.74–1.86) 0.49    51.1 30.8 2.34 (1.24–4.42) 0.008 2.31 (1.16–4.59) 0.01
Age ≥ 86 years 52.7 49.2 1.15 (0.74–1.78) 0.53    39.0 53.0 0.56 (0.29–1.10) 0.09   
Antibiotics in preceding 3 months 39.9 23.3 2.17 (1.34–3.54) 0.001 1.74 (1.02–2.98) 0.04 37.7 32.5 1.25 (0.65–2.41) 0.48   
 Fluoroquinolones 7.8 5.8 1.38 (0.57–3.32) 0.47    15.5 5.7 3.01 (1.17–7.73) 0.02 3.59 (1.26–10.25) 0.01
 Penicillins 7.3 2.9 2.65 (0.86–8.17) 0.09    11.1 4.7 2.50 (0.85–7.34) 0.09   
 Cephalosporins 14.2 6.5 2.37 (1.08–5.18) 0.03    4.4 12.2 0.33 (0.07–1.44) 0.14   
Dementia 63.0 66.4 0.86 (0.54–1.36) 0.52    62.2 64.7 0.89 (0.47–1.71) 0.74   
Peripheral vascular disease 62.5 59.1 1.15 (0.74–1.80) 0.52    62.2 61.0 1.05 (0.55–2.00) 0.87   
Urinary incontinence 83.2 78.8 1.33 (0.77–2.31) 0.30    82.2 81.3 1.06 (0.46–2.40) 0.89   
Diabetes 18.7 18.9 0.98 (0.56–1,71) 0.30    26.6 17.6 1.69 (0.82–3.51) 0.15   
Cancer 11.8 4.3 2.92 (1.16–7.36) 0.02 3.47 (1.32–9.16) 0.01 4.4 9.5 0.44 (0.10–1.93) 0.27   
Decubitus ulcer 9.8 5.1 2.03 (0.83–4.94) 0.12    6.6 8.1 0.80 (0.23–2.79) 0.73   
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 11.8 14.6 0.78 (0.41–1.48) 0.45    15.5 12.5 1.28 (0.53–3.08) 0.57   
Physical disability (Barthel immobility score of 0) 47.7 32.3 1.91 (1.21–3.02) 0.005 2.10 (1.15–3.83) 0.01 37.7 41.0 0.87 (0.45–1.66) 0.67   
Coma 6.9 4.3 1.61 (0.60–4.31) 0.33    6.6 5.7 1.16 (0.32–4.15) 0.81   
Any medical device 32.5 13.1 3.18 (1.79–5.66) < 0.001 2.81 (1.44–5.47) 0.002 33.3 23.3 1.63 (0.83–3.21) 0.15   
 Percutaneous enteral gastrostomy tube 15.7 6.5 2.66 (1.22–5.77) 0.01    11.1 12.2 0.89 (0.33–2.42) 0.83   
 Tracheostomy tube 4.9 2.1 2.31 (0.62–8.56) 0.21    4.4 3.7 1.20 (0.25–5.60) 0.81   
 Urinary catheter 15.7 4.3 4.08 (1.66–10.06) 0.002    20.0 9.8 2.29 (1.00–5.23) 0.04 2.61 (0.06–6.43) 0.03
 Nasogastric tube 5.9 0.7 8.54 (1.09–66.49) 0.04    4.4 3.7 1.20 (0.25–5.60) 0.81   
Length of stay in LTCF < 6 months 15.6 11.9 1.36 (0.71–2.61) 0.34    16.6 13.7 1.25 (0.51–3.00) 0.61   
Hospital admission in previous 12 months 24.2 27.0 0.87 (0.53–1.43) 0.58    37.7 23.4 1.97 (1.02–3.81) 0.04   
Infection 5.4 2.9 1.90 (0.59–6.11) 0.27    8.8 3.7 2.51 (0.76–8.28) 0.12   
  1. ND: not determined; factors included in multivariate analysis are in italics. For multivariate analysis only significant values are shown