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Table 2 Practices related to antimicrobial use on the farms that presumably used antimicrobials (n = 87)

From: Antimicrobials in small-scale urban pig farming in a lower middle-income country – arbitrary use and high resistance levels

  Category n %
How do you administer antimicrobials to the pigs? Injections when sick 87 100
In feed/orally when sick 18 21
In water when sick 1 1
To sows after farrowing (n=58a) 5 9
In feed routinely 8 9
If only some pigs are sick, to which pigs do you administer antimicrobials? (n = 86) Only the sick pigs 65 76
All pigsb 21 24
Do you administer antimicrobials as a prophylaxis? Yes 14 16
No 72 83
Unsurec 1 1
Does the feed concentrate contain antimicrobials? (n = 91d) Yes 34 37
No 8 9
Don’t know 42 46
Don’t use concentrates 7 8
Do you sometimes give human medicines that contain antimicrobials to the animals? Yes 9 10
No 77 89
Don’t know 1 1
Do you sometimes end treatment prematurely if the animal gets better? Yes 57 66
No 30 34
What do you do with antimicrobials that are left (and have expired)? (n = 84) Throw away to pond/environment 36 43
Bury 20 24
Burn 3 4
Take back to veterinarian/animal health worker 8 10
Throw to the person collecting waste 11 13
Keep at home 4 5
Don’t know 2 2
Do you have a withdrawal period (according to instructions) between antimicrobial treatment and slaughter/trader collecting animals? (n = 81) Yes 8 10
No 38 47
Don’t know 1 1
Never been sick around time of slaughter 32 40
Other 2 2
  1. aCalculated based on number of farms that kept sows
  2. bThis category does not necessarily includes sows, as some farmers only used traditional medicines to treat sows
  3. cSome substance was added to the feed routinely but the respondent did not remember the name
  4. dCalculated based on all 91 farms in the study