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Table 2 Associations between potential risk factors and S. aureus intestinal colonization

From: Prevalence and molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from human stool samples

Risk Factor Cases (N = 58) Controls (N = 131) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Age
 0–29 years 9 13 Ref Ref
 30–49 years 14 34 0.58 (0.020–1.65) 2.94 (0.43–19.88)
 50–69 years 28 60 0.67 (0.026–1.77) 5.02 (0.81–30.9)
 Over 70 years 7 23 0.44 (0.13–1.5) 1.42 (0.15–13.6)
Sex
 Male 24 74 Ref Ref
 Female 33 58 1.84 (0.98–3.44) 1.93 (0.94–3.96)
Race/ Ethnicity
 Caucasian 53 115 Ref  
 African American 2 5 0.9 (0.17–4.8)  
 Hispanic/ Latino 3 2 3.35 (0.54–20.63)  
 Other 1 8 0.28 (0.03–2.29)  
S. aureus Infectiona
 No 53 121 Ref Ref
 Yes 5 10 1.14 (0.37–3.50) 0.83 (0.19–3.54)
Other Coinfections
 No Coinfections 26 46 Ref  
 One 21 60 0.62 (0.34–1.23)  
 Two 4 18 0.49 (0.16–1.48)  
 Three or more 7 7 0.67 (0.19–2.34)  
Collection Reason
 Abdominal pain 5 13 Ref Ref
Clostridium difficile 23 37 1.61 (0.51–5.13) 1.87 (0.49–7.11)
 Diarrhea 11 72 0.67 (0.21–2.14) 0.59 (0.15–2.25)
 Other 19 9 2.25 (0.63–8.03) 2.74 (0.64–11.7)
Deceasedb
 No 44 83 Ref Ref
 Yes-within 30 days 3 11 0.71 (0.18–2.8) 0.74 (0.13–4.67)
 Yes- after 30 days 14 26 0.4 (0.16–0.98) 0.29 (0.1–0.86)
 Undeterminable 4 7 1.08 (0.3–3.9) 0.71 (0.17–2.96)
Gastrointestinal Disease
 No 21 69 Ref Ref
 Yes 37 62 1.96 (1.04–3.7) 13.9 (1.67–115.7)
Immunocompromised
 No 15 34 Ref  
 Yes 43 97 1.01 (0.47–2.04)  
ICU Stay
 No 47 98 Ref  
 Yes 11 33 0.69 (0.32–1.5)  
ICU Unit
 No ICU stay 47 98 Ref  
 MICU 5 21 0.5 (0.18–1.4)  
 SICU 2 6 0.7 (0.14–3.58)  
 Other 4 6 1.4 (0.4–5.2)  
ICU Length of Stay
 0 days 47 99 Ref Ref
 1 to 4 days 1 14 0.15 (0.02–1.18) 0.15 (0.02–1.36)
 Greater than 4 days 10 18 1.18 (0.5–2.73) 1.38 (0.46–4.15)
Total Length of Stay
 0 days 12 23 Ref  
 1 to 10 days 23 59 0.75 (0.32–1.75)  
 11 to 29 days 10 26 0.74 (0.27–2.02)  
 Greater than 30 days 13 23 1.08 (0.41–2.87)  
Antibiotics used
 No 26 40 Ref  
 Yes 32 91 0.54 (0.29–1.02)  
Laxatives used
 No 43 100 Ref Ref
 Yes 15 31 1.13 (0.56–2.3) 1.94 (0.8–4.6)
Anti-motility agent used
 No 57 122 Ref Ref
 Yes 1 9 0.238 (0.03–1.92) 0.16 (0.02–1.53)
  1. aS. aureus infections are defined as clinical infections extracted from the patients medical record
  2. bMortality is not considered a risk factor colonization. For this variable, S. aureus colonization is a risk factor for mortality