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Table 1 Key themes identified during workshops for the development of a patient engagement intervention for promoting enhanced communication and information provision surrounding infection management in secondary care

From: Development of a patient-centred intervention to improve knowledge and understanding of antibiotic therapy in secondary care

Category Summary of workshops decision on content Summary of workshops decision on structure
Platform Needed to be flexible, to allow use on devices, paper, in and out of hospital, and by all age groups The platform should also be personalisable, to allow the patient and doctor to select relevant information depending on the patient’s wishes A PDF document that can be populated, printed, emailed, or uploaded onto an application was preferred. Mobile applications, websites, automated text systems were also considered but were felt not to have the same level of flexibility.
Individualised The intervention should provide information about the individual’s current condition and treatment. Information provided should be in summary form. The provision of blood test results, or probabilities was not felt to be appropriate as it could be overwhelming and concerning to some patients.
Health literate The information must be provided in language that the majority of citizens can understand. The quantity of information provide must be enough to provide key information but not overwhelming to someone who is unwell and in hospital. Colours and tables were not preferred. Participants opted for the minimum amount of presented information. Basic explanations of conditions with examples of medical terminology sometimes used was felt to be helpful for following discussions and searching for further information after the consultation.
Sign post Detailed descriptions should not be included, but references for reputable sources of information should be provided to help guide those who want more information. Links to further information on reputable websites. Blood test results were not preferred on the leaflet.
Practical advice Advice on common or important side effects of treatments should be included. Practical information, such as whether it is okay to drink alcohol, drive/operate heavy machinery, and interactions with the oral contraceptive pill whilst taking antibiotics should be included. Educational information to promote better understanding of the risks of drug resistant infections could be included. Adherence to therapy should be reinforced. Minimal numbers of side effects were preferred. The group decided on 3–4 key side effects would be optimal. A short description of antimicrobial resistance and where to find further information was included for reference.
A tool to enhance communication The intervention should aim to enhance communication between patient and healthcare professionals. It should be designed to be delivered by all types of health care professional. It should provide a prompt to allow the patient to consider whether they have further questions, allowing them to pick this up during future interactions with the healthcare professional. Diagnosis, causative organism, and treatments (past and present) were included.
Supporting follow up Information on next appointments Information on who to contact if you have problems or questions on discharge Removed from the leaflet as participants felt that it overlapped with discharge summaries that are often provided. In this case duplication of information at different times during hospital stay may be unhelpful.